The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹ 4 (27), 2019
05.07.10 INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES
D’yachkov L.G., Vasiliev M.M., Petrov O.F., Savin S.F., Churilo I.V.
Preparation of the cosmic experiment «Coulomb–Plasma»
Studies of dusty plasma have been actively carried out for about a quarter of a century in many laboratories on Earth, and on board the International Space Station under microgravity conditions. At present, a new experiment is being prepared. We describe the goals and objectives of the experiment, its features and differences from previous experiments, explain the need for it in microgravity. The objective of the experiment is to study the evolution of the open dissipative systems of strongly interacting macroparticles in a gas-discharge plasma, to obtain data on phase transitions and dynamics of active Brownian particles and dynamics of defects and dislocations in plasma-dust structures.
Key words: dusty plasma, microgravity, cosmic experiment, open thermodynamic systems, active Brownian particles
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Bagrov À.V., Dmitriev A.O., Leonov V.À., Moskatinyev I.V., Sysoev V.K., Shirshakov A.E.
Constructing an optical lunar navigation system based on spacecraft made by Lavochkin Association
The paper discusses the problem of developing an optical system for global positioning on the Moon to within one meter designed to service a limited number of users. It was demonstrated that the optimal solution of the problem would be to continuously monitor the positions of laser light beacons on the lunar surface from on-board an artificial satellite of the Moon equipped with an onboard TV camera, as well as from onboard a spacecraft placed at the L1 and L2 Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system. The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a global lunar optical navigation and communications system based on space systems projects that are being developed at NPO Lavochkin: Spektr-UV observatory, lunar spacecraft Luna-25 and Luna-26. The use of these space systems will make it possible to start working in realistic terms on the navigation/communications system as a part of the future engineering infrastructure for lunar exploration.
Key words: telescope, optical navigation system, lunar base, Lagrange point, Spektr-UV, Luna-25, Luna-26.
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15. Efanov V.V., Dolgopolov V.P. The Moon. From exploration to industrialization (to the 50-th anniversary of the Luna-9 and Luna-10 spacecraft)//S.A. Lavochkin NPO Bulletin. 2016. No. 4. Pp. 3–8.
05.07.01 FLYING VEHICLES AERODYNAMICS AND HEAT EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Bogomolov N.V., Zhurin S.V., Pakhmutov P.A., Prokopiev V.P.
A study of viscoelastic behavior of a textile suspension in a parachute system model for advanced space re-entry vehicles
One of the pressing problems in space industry is providing soft landing on Earth for space re-entry vehicles and stages of launch vehicles for their re-use. This problem could be addressed by using a parachute system option which has an elastic link and tandem separation of the cargo into two tethered parts. The paper discusses determining viscoelastic behavior of the textile tether in a test setup of this parachute system, and constructing a math model of its strain behavior under transient mechanical loads. Obtained in the experiment was viscous friction coefficient for unit length of the tether, while the literature provides damping properties for samples of a certain length. The math model was developed under assumption of the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model. Wave effects produced by shock impact are not simulated. The process of cargo descent was mathematically simulated using parameters of the test-bed experiment. The results of calculations using experimentally obtained coefficients are in satisfactory agreement with experiment with respect to strain and maximum g-load values.
Key words: soft landing, re-entry vehicle, viscoelasticity, mechanical properties of textile materials, math model of strain.
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05.07.02 FLYING VEHICLES ENGINEERING, DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Elizarov Yu.S., Kuznetsov A.V., Abdulkhalikov R.M., Bideev A.G., Khamits I.I.
Power budget of the science and power module during its free flight and integration into the ISS Russian segment
The paper presents data obtained as a result of solving the power balance computation problem for the Science and Power Module (SPM) during the most difficult phase of its flight — up until the point in time when its solar arrays are deployed.
The calculation took into account: prediction of the lighting and shadowing environment and the angle between the SPM orbital plane and direction towards the Sun; timeline of the SPM free flight, which takes into account changes in its attitude; timeline of SPM integration into the ISS Russian Segment, including the SPM docking and re-docking and the SPM solar array deployment.
The feasibility of implementing the nominal flight plan of the module is demonstrated, a problem was identified with carrying out the SPM re-docking and pull-away maneuver in case of a miss. Measures are proposed for solving the above problem.
Key words: Science and Power Module, power balance, ISS Russian Segment, free flight, docking, solar arrays, nickel-hydrogen storage battery.
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05.07.05 FLYING VEHICLES THERMAL, ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENGINES AND POWER GENERATING SYSTEMS
Gusev Yu.V., Pilnikov A.V., Suvorov S.E.
Tradeoff analysis of high-power electric propulsion systems based on domestic electric propulsion engines and potential for their use in orbit-to-orbit transfer systems and deep space exploration
The paper discusses design solutions for increased-power and high-power electric rocket propulsion systems to be used in orbit-to-orbit transfer vehicles and advanced spacecraft. It reviews characteristics of their components from the standpoint of the mission to reboost the spacecraft to their target orbits, to perform the operations of transportation to the lunar orbit and to explore deep space. It discusses key criteria and procedures for selection of components, as well as problem areas in their development and ground developmental testing.
The paper analyses pros and cons of using various versions of propulsion systems based on medium- and high-power electrical propulsion engines, the current status of their component development, as well as the technical feasibility of conducting developmental tests on the ground.
Key words: electric propulsion engine, propulsion system, propulsion module, propellant storage system, power supply and control system, vacuum chamber, vacuum system.
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Migunov Ya.N., Onufriev V.V.
Simulation of the current-voltage characteristics of solar batteries with considering decrease of lighting due to the influence of jets of the electric propulsion
A model for calculating the voltage-current characteristic of a solar array in the presence of a temperature gradient by its photovoltaic converters and their variable illumination due to possible pollution under the action of space factors, including operation of electric rocket engines, is described. The model is based on the main equation of a solar cell. In this case both a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional temperature gradients are taken into account. The principles of constructing a model are given, and the initial data selection is made. To simulate the lighting conditions of the solar array such a concept as effective illumination is used, i.e. the density of the radiation flux which falls on photovoltaic converters passing through the protective coatings. The features of simulation of the temperature distribution in the solar array and the effective illumination of its surface in cases of parallel, serial and mixed switching of solar cells are described. The calculation procedures and examples of solar cells are given. The construction of the model in universal mathematical package Mathcad is described. Some simulation results are discussed.
Key words: solar array, mathematical simulation, illumination, temperature gradient, electric rocket engine, spacecraft, Mathcad.
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05.07.06 GROUND FACILITIES, LAUNCHING EQUIPMENT, OPERATION OF FLYING VEHICLES
Sokolov V.G., Gorbenko A.V.
Analysis of consequences of structural damage to the ISS Russian Segment caused by collision with space debris
Under the conditions of increasing littering in the near-Earth space, a quantitative estimate of the criticality of consequences of the ISS penetration with fragments of space debris is a necessary tool when developing measures to recover from the contingency related to the penetration. The ISS Russian Segment (RS) is mostly susceptible to penetration due to the fact that it includes transportation spacecraft, which have weaker shielding as compared with the station modules. In connection with this, there arises a problem of determining the degree of criticality for penetration of the pressure hull of the modules, transportation spacecraft, propellant tanks and bottles in the RS taking into account possible types of catastrophic consequences of the penetration and the distribution of the penetration risk over the modules and the transportation spacecraft.
In order to solve the problem, a procedure was developed for calculating the risks of a catastrophic penetration of the station, based on breaking up the original problem into two stages. Calculated during the first stage is the probability of penetration of individual compartments constituting the station and having a certain type of shielding protection, using a finite-element geometrical model of the station and a model of the technogenic environment. The obtained results are used during the second stage of calculation of the catastrophic penetration probability using statistic test method (Monte-Carlo method). This method uses a model of the ISS RS consisting of compartments with simplified shapes (cylinders and truncated cones), which makes it possible to simplify the procedure for obtaining a random penetration location and reduce the time needed to obtain statistically valid results.
Based on the procedure presented in the paper, a program was developed, which is used for calculating the probability of catastrophic consequences of the ISS RS penetration. Analysis of calculation results has shown that the relative probability of a catastrophic penetration accompanied by the loss of the crew and/or the station is 13.3%; probability of emergency crew evacuation because of the threat of hypoxia is 3.716%; probability of emergency crew evacuation in a spacecraft with a punctured orbital module is 21.59%. The paper proposes steps that need to be taken in order to further reduce the risk of catastrophic consequences of the penetration through including into onboard systems the subsystem for promptly determining coordinates of the penetration location, as well as the use of oxygen masks by the crew during recovery operations.
Key words: International Space Station, ISS Russian Segment, meteoroid, space debris, protective shielding structure, penetration probability, probability of catastrophic consequences of penetration.
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05.07.07 CHECKING AND TESTING FLYING VEHICLES AND THEIR SYSTEMS
Statistical estimation of the residual gamma-percent resource of space technology according to the results of tests that did not give up failures and carried out according to a plan with a limited time and recovery
The problem of estimating the residual resource (hereinafter - OR) of space technology products (hereinafter - CT products), including spacecraft (hereinafter - SC), is constant throughout the time interval of space exploration. This is evidenced by numerous publications, emphasizing the relevance of this problem. In practice, a situation often arises when it is necessary to obtain an estimate of the OR of an entire group of CT products, and in particular, spacecraft. Such an opportunity is provided by well-developed methods of mathematical statistics, but only in cases when failures occur during operation, while the OR estimates used are not effective. However, for a group of spacecraft in operation in outer space, during which no failures occurred, the traditional methods of mathematical statistics do not work. The reliability of spacecraft is constantly growing, as is their number in outer space. Therefore, the urgency of the problem of evaluating the OR of an entire group of similar spacecraft in service, during which no failures occurred, grows. The reliability model is based on the exponential distribution law. The purpose of the article is to find the estimate ^tγ of the residual gamma-percentage resource (RGPR) of space technology - within the limits imposed on the use of the resource, which will be simpler and more efficient than the traditional OGPR, existence, from the point of view of proximity to the true value of the RGPR using a test plan with limited operating time and restoration. To find an effective estimate, integral numerical characteristics of the estimation accuracy were used, namely: the total square of the bias (deviation) of the expected implementation of a certain variant of the estimate from all possible parameters of the binomial test plan. The obtained estimate ^tγRGPR^tγ has the direction of practical application in the operation of the spacecraft, during which no failures occurred.
Key words: gamma-percentile operating life; exponential distribution; test plan; point estimation, residual gamma-percentile operating life, space technology, space vehicles.
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Test results for ball-bearings in the drives of systems and scientific equipment of a spacecraft in oscillatory operational mode
This paper aims at elucidating some special operational aspects of instrument ball bearings used in systems and scientific equipment of a spacecraft in oscillatory mode in vacuum with the lubricant VNII NP-274n. The service life of such bearings is mostly determined by the lubrication mode, as well as anti-torque moment, which is an indicator of internal energy losses. To observe these parameters in the course of bearings operation in oscillatory mode in vacuum an electromechanical test rig was set up. The test data obtained in oscillatory mode were compared with data obtained during continuous rotation of the same bearings. Based on the results of the tests, a lubricating mode was determined, an empirical formula was proposed for the relationship between the anti-torque moment and oscillatory motion parameters, as well as recommendations on extending the service life were provided. The paper may be of use to developers of systems and scientific instrumentation of a SC with oscillating shaft, which uses as supports ball bearings with predominantly axial load.
Key words: spacecraft life, oscillatory motion, rotational resistance, lubrication mode, inertial slippage.
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05.07.09 FLYING VEHICLES DYNAMICS, TRAJECTORY AND MOTION CONTROL
Salmin V.V., Petrukhina K.V., Kvetkin A.A.
Ñalculation of suboptimal high-elliptical orbit to geostationary orbit transfers for spacecraft with low thrusters
At present the geostationary orbit is where communication satellites are preferably placed. Conventional orbital insertion profiles using chemical propulsion are insufficiently effective and require the use of heavy launch vehicles. Combining electric thrusters with chemical propulsion increases the mass of payload. On the other hand, orbital injection of a spacecraft using electrical propulsion brings up the problem of looking for an optimal control law. The paper discusses the transfer of a spacecraft with low-thrust electrical thruster from a high elliptical orbit to geostationary orbit. It proposes a suboptimal control law for the thrust vector. It provides examples of simulations of the transfer using the control law for various initial conditions. Parameters of intermediate high-elliptical orbits were selected to minimize the time of transfer to the final orbit, and estimates were made of the effects of the residual atmospheric drag during flight in the vicinity of the perigee of the orbit. Considering the low level of error, simplicity and high computational speed the proposed method can be used for trajectory design calculations.
Key words: Suboptimal control law, local optimization theory, electric thruster, high-elliptical orbit, geostationary orbit, math model of controlled motion, Pontryagin's maximum principle.
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Spacecraft docking dynamic features by using a peripheral mechanism with accumulation of approach kinetic energy
Up to now, several docking systems have been developed under the International Docking System Standard (IDSS) by national space agencies and private companies. Docking mechanisms of these systems are based on different design and control principles. Thus a new peripheral docking mechanism, with more simple kinematics and design than that used in previous APAS docking unit, has been developed by Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia». An accumulation of spacecraft approach kinetic energy instead of traditional damping is used in this mechanism. It allows to move forward the docking ring for capture improvement and to ensure slowdown. Main features of spacecraft docking dynamic process with the use of this mechanism are described in this paper.
Key words: spacecraft, docking mechanisms, docking dynamics.
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14. Yaskevich A.V. Matematicheskaya model' dinamiki novogo periferiinogo stykovochnogo mekhanizma [The dynamic math model of a peripheral docking mechanism with accumulation of spacecraft approach kinetic energy]. Kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologii, 2019, no. 3(26), pp. 98–108. DOI 10.33950/spacetech-2308-7625-2019-3-98-108.
15. Yaskevich A.V. Kontaktnye sily v uravneniyakh dvizheniya kosmicheskikh apparatov pri stykovke i prichalivanii [Contact forces on spacecraft motion equations during docking and berthing]. Kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologii, 2018, no. 2(21), pp. 80–92.
16. Yaskevich A.V. Algoritmy opredeleniya parametrov kontaktov pri modelirovanii stykovki i prichalivaniya kosmicheskikh apparatov [Algorithms for contact parameters determination during math simulation of spacecraft docking and berthing]. Kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologii, 2018, no. 3(22), pp. 90–102.
05.13.01 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, CONTROL AND DATA PROCESSING
Prutko A.A., Atroshenkov S.N., Bogachev A.V., Starchenko A.E.
Using pseudospectral method to search for propellant-optimal trajectories of the international space station attitude control maneuvers
The paper discusses the problem of searching for propellant-optimal trajectories of the International Space Station attitude control maneuvers involving spatial turns through large angles using attitude control jet thrusters. Development of such algorithms for controlling the ISS angular motion is currently a crucial task for Russian developers of the onboard software. In order to generate the optimal trajectory for the attitude control maneuver, the paper proposes to use the Lobatto pseudospectral method. This method allows stating the optimal control problem as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem which can be solved using the method of sequential quadratic programming. Simulation results demonstrated significant savings of attitude control thrusters propellant and life during station attitude control maneuvers in comparison with the algorithms that are currently used in the motion control system of the ISS Russian Segment.
Key words: International Space Station, optimal control problem, angular motion control, pseudospectral method, nonlinear programming.
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