1 (24)  january-march 2019

The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
 1 (24), 2019



Dyadkin A.A., Rybak S.P., Trashkov G.A., Garbaruk A.V., Strelets M.Kh., Shur M.L., Drozdov S.M., Stolyarov E.P.
The design and experimental studies of pressure pulsations on the surface of the ascent unit with manned transport spacecraft in the launch phase

The results of the design and experimental study of the turbulent flow over the re-entry cone with manned transport spacecraft and the emergency rescue system in the launch phase are presented. The main task of these studies is to determine the amplitude-frequency characteristics of pressure pulsations on the surface of the return vehicle. A combined two-stage scale-resolving approach to turbulence representation developed for this purpose is described in some detail, and the results of its verification are presented based on the comparison of the predicted unsteady surface pressure with measurements of pressure pulsations made for the 20 times reduced model configuration in the wind tunnel of TsAGI -128. The analysis of the results of simulations of the full-scale configuration at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds of flight suggests that in the launch phase the re-entry cone surface experiences strong dynamic loads (at Mach number = 1.5 intensity of the surface pressure pulsations reaches 175 dB). It is also shown that a significant (up to 7 dB) contribution to these loads is due to turbulent vortex structures populating wakes of nozzles of the emergency rescue unit.

Key words: manned transport spacecraft, re-entry cone, surface pressure pulsations, two-stage scale-resolving approach to turbulence modeling, wind tunnel, unsteady pressure measurements.


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Zimin V.P., Efimov K.N., Kolychev A.V., Kernozhitsky V.A., Ovchinnikov V.A., Yakimov A.S.
Simulation of thermionic thermal shielding during convective heating of a composite shell

There is currently under way an effort to develop high-speed flying vehicles capable of maneuvering in dense atmosphere. These include descent vehicles of advanced re-usable spacecraft and recoverable launch vehicle stages. These high-speed flying vehicles are exposed to high dynamic and thermal loads, which may result in their breakup and changes in their aerodynamic properties. Therefore, it is critical to provide thermal shielding for their structural elements. A promising solution for solving this problem is to use thermionic technology the electronic cooling resulting from thermal emission of electrons from the emitter surface. This technology makes it possible to convert thermal energy generated in convective heating directly into electric energy. To find a high-precision solution of this scientific and engineering problem, it is necessary to develop mathematical and physical simulations of such systems taking into account the intricate manner in which the high-enthalpy flows interact with thermal shielding material, where structural elements of the flying vehicle itself take part to a large extent in the process of their cooling. The application of such an approach will make it possible to simulate thermionic thermal shielding systems of high-speed flying vehicles under conditions representing actual loads along their trajectories.

Key words: thermionic thermal shielding, simulation, heat exchange, thermionic converter, emitter, collector, cooler.


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Nikolaev V.D., Zernov A.S.
Safety assurance of chemical self-contained power supplies for hardware and onboard equipment of the ISS Russian Segment

Chemical self-contained power supplies (SPS) are widely used in the replaceable equipment and experimental hardware aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In the event of a failure aboard the ISS or transport vehicle SPS poses a serious hazard to the crew as chemical elements. Therefore, special measures are taken, and equipment/devices are used to prevent the SPS seal failure and electrolyte ingress into the atmosphere of the ISS pressurized compartments, on the crewmembers and hardware. The article describes the types of SPS used on the ISS Russian Segment, and the requirements placed on new types of SPS. The SPS qualification, verification and preflight test procedures are presented. The results of typical SPS qualification tests are provided.

Key words: International Space Station (ISS), Russian Segment, US On-Orbit Segment, self-contained chemical power supply, safety assurance, qualification test, pre-flight test.


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Bershadskiy V.A., Sokolov B.A., Tumanin E.N.
Results of study of dissolution intensity of non-condensable gas in liquid propellant components of propulsion systems

The importance of determining the dissolution intensity of non-condensable gas in the propellant components used in rocket propulsion systems due to the effect of the gas content in the propellant on the liquid rocket engine performance is shown. The necessity of experimental studies of the dissolution intensity of gaseous helium in liquid hydrogen on a large-scale experimental facility when creating an oxygen-hydrogen propulsion system of the Energia launch vehicle is substantiated. Features of making studies with substantiation of the process model and generalization of experimental data are presented. The dependence of the mass-transfer coefficient in dimensionless form for wide ranges of the similarity criteria changes characteristic of high-boiling and cryogenic liquids is obtained.
The comparative analysis and advantages of the obtained results, as well as brief information about their practical use are given. The results of the study of helium solubility in liquid cryogenic propellant components hydrogen and oxygen can be used when developing rocket stages with cryogenic propellant components for a superheavy class launch vehicle.

Key words: propellant-feed system, gas dissolution intensity, propellant components, dissolved gas concentration, gas saturation of propellant, mass-transfer coefficient, dimensionless criteria, a superheavy class launch vehicle.


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Rulev D.N., Rulev N.D.
Planning observations of astronomical objects from a spacecraft taking into account constraints on the observation times

The paper discusses an approach to solving the problem of planning observations of astronomical objects in a specified catalogue from a spacecraft taking into account constraints on the time intervals for performing observations. It presents a formalization of the problem as the routing problem, which includes statements in the form of a travelling salesman problem and a mixed integer linear programming problem that can be solved by methods of integer programming. It provides examples of constructing optimized programs of observations of astronomical objects from an orbiting spacecraft, illustrating the feasibility of practical use of proposed methods for observation planning, including for carrying out observations from an orbiting spacecraft during flight intervals with varying light and shadow environments in orbit. It demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach both for constructing optimized observation programs, and for analyzing conditions and determining possible observation parameters.

Key words: astronomical objects, light and shadow environment, observation program, route, travelling salesman problem, integer programming.


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Kirilin A.N., Akhmetov R.N., Tkachenko S.I., Stratilatov N.R., Salmin V.V., Voronov K.., AbrashkinV.I., Tkachenko I.S., Piyakov .V., Safronov S.L.
Key design parameters and operational results for a constellation of small spacecraft for scientific and educational purposes of the AIST series

The paper reviews major results of five years of operation of the AiST series small satellites tandem. Two satellites of this series, the flight model and the engineering model, were launched into orbit in 2013. The paper provides performance data for the small spacecraft, describes their purpose, hardware configuration, the constellation status as of second quarter of 2018, research results obtained in the course of experiments conducted onboard each of the two small spacecraft. it evaluates performance capability of the small standardized satellite bus AiST, including thermal control system and power supply system. The results of analysis of telemetry data files accumulated in the course of operation of the AiST series small spacecraft, can be used in the design of new spacecraft for scientific, educational and technology experiment applications that are based on standardized small mass and dimensions satellite buses.

Key words: small spacecraft, standardized small mass and dimensions satellite bus, telemetry data, thermal control system, power supply system, key design parameters, operational results.


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Agashkin S.V., Badanina Yu.O., Bashkarev V.S., Drozdov A.A., Ushakov A.R.
Automated system for compensation of the weight component for tests of spacecraft transformable antennas

Modern trends in the development of space industry are focused on rapid market growth in broadband services. Spacecraft with transformable large-sized reflectors created a new round in the competition for the consumer, which is a further step in the globalization of the market of information services, creating benefits to the countries that have the necessary satellite technologies of wide-band multimedia broadcasting. The reliability of any equipment for use in the spacecraft decisively depends on the quality of its ground development test. To assure a high quality of the processing it is required to develop a high-precision automated system for the weight component compensation. The structure of the automation platform has been developed, which corresponds to the accepted technological process of testing. The principles of interaction of subsystems for receiving, processing and controlling the parameters of the test process are defined. The calculation of parametric equations for external and internal loops of the system control has been made.
The developed software is implemented in the hardware and software system for performing tests of large transformable antenna with the weight component compensation system. Using the software extends the capabilities of studying large transformable reflectors and improves the quality and reliability of the tests carried out.

Key words: spacecraft, large reflector, automation, weight component compensation systems, ground development test, software.


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Borzykh S.V., Levitskaya Yu.Yu., Shchiblev Yu.N.
An approach to simulating the dynamics of deployment of large solar arrays on spacecraft

This paper discusses the dynamics of solar array deployment, which is one of the key dynamic operations performed by a spacecraft. It provides the rationale for the need to analyze dynamics of solar array deployment as early as during the initial design phases. It provides the actual kinematic diagrams of deployment with indication of structural elements of the deployment system. The paper discusses approaches to mathematical simulation of the solar array deployment process based on analytical mechanics methods taking into account specific features of the system that is to be simulated: design of the solar array and properties of its individual elements, its deployment kinematics, equipment for initiating panel turns, etc.
The paper proposes a methodological approach to simulating deployment of large solar arrays on a spacecraft with universal generation of the computational model, which is convenient for development of efficient numerical algorithms and high-speed software implementations. This approach is based on representing the spacecraft and solar array structures as a spatial structurally-complex system of bodies performing relative motion under the action of specific force factors. For each body a motion equation is written on the basis of general theorems of dynamics. The action of other elements of the solar array on a selected body is taken into account in the form of constraint reaction forces and torques. In order to determine them, special equations are formed, the form and structure of which are driven by the design of joints between individual elements of the solar array. The proposed approach has a vast adaptive potential, which makes it possible to describe various designs and deployment systems. It permits to determine principal integral parameters of the solar array deployment process.

Key words: solar arrays, solar array deployment process dynamics, multi-phase deployment procedures.


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Sizentsev G.A., Sinyavskiy V.V., Sokolov B.A.
A concept of an energy-and-climate control facility in space to counter global overheating

Main results of the fifth Evaluation Report of the Climate Change Intergovernmental Experts Team became the foundation for the climate agreement of the UN Paris conference on climate (December 2015), by identifying the ways of countering a global environmental disaster on Earth. The conference reaffirmed the need to limit release of green house gases into the Earth atmosphere. However, meeting the goals set in the Evaluation Report is in doubt because of the existing political and economic differences among nations, which is evidenced by the level of commitments to limit emissions made by the heads of the countries that took part in the conference.
This paper proposes to consider using untapped potential of spaceflight towards solving the global warming problem by contributing the UN Adaptation Fund through sale of rare materials mined on the Moon and setting up a reserve space energy-and-climate control facility. This would allow, on the one hand, to increase financial aid to developing countries to help them combat climate change consequences and lend support to the lunar industrial infrastructure, as well as to the development of a space system for thermal control, on the other hand, to stabilize as far as possible the geographic coordinates of climatic zones, the level of the ocean, etc., reducing losses to wildlife, and, among other things, to the Civilization.

Key words: global climate, renewable energy sources, lunar rare-earth materials, space technology, lunar industrial infrastructure.


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