The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹ 4 (19), 2017
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES
Alyamovskiy S.N., Belyaev Ì.Yu., Rulev D.N., Sazonov V.V., Tarasova Ì.Ì.
Spherical satellites: from the dawn of the space age to modern experiments (for the 60th anniversary of the launch of the first Earth satellite)
60 years ago, on October 4, 1957 the R-7 rocket developed at the Special Design Bureau No.1 led by the Chief Designer S.P. Korolev put into orbit the first ever artificial Earth satellite. To speed up the development work on the first satellite in order to make sure that our country was to be the first to launch it, it was decided that the satellite would be very simple and still have a distinctive shape.
It should be noted that satellites of spherical shape, just as it was in the case of the simplest satellite Sputnik launched 60 years ago, are still of interest from the standpoint of conducting a number of scientiic studies even today. Through observing the motion of a satellite of a perfect spherical shape, which has precisely known mass and dimensions, it is possible to determine the atmospheric density and update atmospheric model parameters. For this purpose, within the framework of space experiment Vector-T, test satellites of spherical shape are periodically launched from the International Space Station. The latest in the series of such satellites was launched on August 17, 2017 by cosmonauts S.N. Ryazansky and F.N. Yurchikhin. The paper describes methods for updating atmospheric model parameters from the motion of the test satellite and provides some examples of the calculations.
Key words: satellite of spherical shape, determining motion from measurements, space experiment, updating atmospheric model parameters.
FLYING VEHICLES AERODYNAMICS AND HEAT EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Dyadkin A.A., Kazakov M.I., Mikhaylov M.V., Andreev V.N., Kozlovskiy V.A.
A study of the abort rocket unit plume effects on the aerodynamics of the separation unit
To assure the safety of crews of manned transportation spacecraft during ascent in case of a launch vehicle failure, escape rocket units are used, which are designed to perform emergency separation of the re-entry vehicle with its crew from the launch vehicle and pull it away to a safe distance. At the same time, the escape rocket unit generates the required conditions for shockless separation of the re-entry vehicle and its nominal landing on the surface of the land or water. The action of the rocket unit is triggered by the abort command that can be generated by the launch vehicle control system at any point in the ascent trajectory starting from the lift-of.
In order to size the rocket stage performance, to assures stability and controllability of the separation unit, which includes the escape rocket unit, a transfer compartment and re-entry vehicle, in free light with both operational and non-operational main propulsion systems, one needs to know its aerodynamic properties in the light range of Mach numbers Ì∞, angles of attack αï and aerodynamic roll angles φï. In this connection, of greatest difficulty is the determination of the efects the jets of the rocket unit propulsion system have on the aerodynamic properties of the separation unit and gas dynamics efects of the jets on the surface of the re-entry vehicle.
A study of aerodynamic properties of the escape system separation unit with operating propulsion system is a very challenging problem from both computational and experimental standpoints.
The paper presents results of numerical studies of aerodynamic properties of the escape system separation unit for the new-generation Russian crew transportation spacecraft, as well as the validation of the results of computational studies using experimental data obtained from a scale model in wind tunnel. The studies were done in the range of subsonic to hypersonic light velocities and variable levels of jet of-design condition.
Key words: propulsion system, separation unit, escape rocket stage.
FLYING VEHICLES ENGINEERING, DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Gukalo A.A., Zolotarev A.M., Magzhanov R.M.
Electronic simulation as a phase of developing design documentation for RSC Energia orbital station modules
One of the main tasks in development of rocket and space products using modern computer-aided design systems is to assure quality of the developed design documentation.
RSC Energia-developed electronic simulation procedure is aimed at solving this particular problem. Electronic simulation is considered as a type of works in all phase of developing the design documentation for products.
Consideration is given to a process of developing documentation for products in the preliminary design and working design documentation phases. Basic approaches to the process management are given. The results of electronic simulations of the node module of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station are presented, and their analysis is carried out, conclusions on the applicability of the proposed procedure are made.
Key words: design documentation, electronic simulation, orbital station, electronic dummy.
FLYING VEHICLES STRENGTH AND THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS
Plotnikov A.D., Korneeva E.Yu., Alekhova T.A., Zagustina N.A.
A study of the efects of biocorrosion damage on mechanical properties of aluminum alloys AMg6 and 1570C in the context of operating conditions on the Russian Segment of the ISS
The paper reviews the results of accelerated biocorrosion tests on samples of two aluminum alloys used in the construction of manned space vehicles involving the use of decomposer fungi that had been extracted from surfaces on the ISS Russian Segment. Decomposer fungi growing on structural surfaces inlict on them biocorrosion damage.
The paper presents the procedure for experimental studies on samples of aluminum alloys Amg6 and 1570C with biocorrosion damage, which allows evaluating potential risks that occur or may occur in of-nominal situations, and the new results of mechanical stress and cycle fatigue tests on these alloys. The level of samples biocorrosion damage was also evaluated using various methods, including those that use an optical microscope, scanning laser microscopy, metallographic studies, scanning electron microscopy and imaging with an X-ray tomography scanner.
Key words: biocorrosion, Russian Segment of the International Space Station, aluminum alloys, cyclic fatigue, mechanical properties, decomposer fungi.
FLYING VEHICLES THERMAL, ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENGINES AND POWER GENERATING SYSTEMS
Averkov I.S., Demskaya I.A., Katkov R.E., Raznoschikov V.V., Samsonov D.A., Tupitsyn N.N., Yanovskiy L.S.
Analysis of energy performance of composite hydrocarbon fuels for oxygen engines of space rocket stages
The currently used integrated rocket upper stages and transfer orbit stages operating on liquid oxygen – kerosene components are supposed to provide a maximum mass of spacecraft payload injected both into geo-transfer and geostationary orbits.
One of the possible ways of solving this problem could be a transition to a synthetic hydrocarbon fuel or hydrocarbon dual-fuel, which could make it possible to build up a specific main engine pulse in space and increase the spacecraft upmass capabilities.
The article analyzes the energy performance of various hydrocarbon fuels, including energyintensive ones for liquid space rocket stages and upper stages, and describes the optimization study results for deining optimal hydrocarbon dual-fuels based on «speciic engine pulse» criterion. For advanced searching, the use of aviation fuels in rocket technology was assessed.
Key words: synthetic energy-intensive hydrocarbon mono-fuels, energy-intensive hydrocarbon dual-fuels, rocket engine, specific engine pulse, spacecraft payload mass.
Ostrovskiy V.G., Sokolov B.A., Shcherbina P.A.
Development and research of iodine storage and supply system for electric thrusters
The paper considers two concepts of the iodine storage and supply system for electric thruster: for ground-based experimental research of iodine electric thrusters and for their possible application in space. Both concepts are developed with regard to low energy consumption. The results of experimental research of both concepts are also provided with maximum iodine consumption rate (15 mg/s for the ground option, 4 mg/s for the space option of iodine storage and supply system). The ground option was controlled by two procedures: while maintaining the constant temperature of the iodine container; and while maintaining the constant outlet pressure of the iodine container. The iodine storage and supply system option for space application was controlled only while maintaining the constant temperature of the iodinetank. The upgraded design of the storage and supply system is described with increased efficiency through the heat supply in the iodine evaporation area, as well as with an increased iodine flow rate stability in the electric thruster through addition of a receiver locateddirectly behind the iodine evaporation area. The paper also presents the iodine storage and supply system developed by US company Busek Co.
Key words: electric thruster, coolant, iodine, stationary plasma thruster, iodine storage and supply system.
GROUND FACILITIES, LAUNCHING EQUIPMENT, OPERATION OF FLYING VEHICLES
Boyko N.P., Egorov N.A., Chetkin S.V.
Investigation of vertical distribution of atmospheric parameters to be used in spacecraft landing models
The article deals with the modeling of atmospheric parameters for use in simulated manned spacecraft landing models, as well as the purpose and function of the unit determining external conditions in the general manned spacecraft landing model. The review of initial data for modeling the vertical distribution of atmospheric parameters and the problems of their use is provided, the possibility and expediency of using the Global Radiosonde Archive data for these purposes is studied, the description, structure and simpliied radiosonde data analysis procedure are presented. Provided are the analysis results based on the proposed procedure for two areas of possible landing of the reentry vehicle of the advanced manned transport spacecraft Federation, and the results obtained are compared with the nominal parameters of the standard atmosphere.
Key words: simulation model of landing process, vertical distribution of atmospheric parameters, Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive.
FLYING VEHICLES DYNAMICS, TRAJECTORY AND MOTION CONTROL
Atroshenkov S.N., Prutko A.A., Krylov A.N., Krylov N.A., Gubarev F.V.
Aerodynamic forces and torques simulation for the veriication of International Space Station Guidance, Navigation and Control System dynamic modes and for optimal control synthesis
atmospheric air incident on the surface of the International Space Station (ISS) during execution of dynamic modes of the Guidance, Navigation and Control System of the Service Module, which were developed by RSC Energia. These methods suitable both for searching for the optimal ISS motion control, and for the verification of dynamic modes of the Service Module Guidance, Navigation and Control System, are based on the computation of aerodynamic properties within set of points in a 4D-space and subsequent 4D interpolation of aerodynamic properties during simulation. The paper compares the results of computations of exposure to incident air flow during simulations of the ISS optimal-propellant wide-angle turning maneuver.
During a turning maneuver the ISS geometry changes significantly due to large-scale elements of the ISS rotating about axes pointing in various directions. There are plans to use the proposed methods during preparations for space experiment MKS-Razvorot. They can also be useful in developing control algorithms for the Guidance, Navigation and Control Systems of future large-scale space vehicles.
Key words: aerodynamic characteristics, 4D-space, 4D-interpolation, optimal propellant maneuver, methods for computing aerodynamic characteristics.
MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT, PROCESSES OF REFRIGERATION AND CRYOGENIC TECHNOLOGY, AIR CONDITIONING AND LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Glebov I.V., Kogan I.L.
Simulation modeling in designing regenerative life support systems for manned spacecraft
The paper concentrates on the discussion of using simulation modeling for analysis of technical requirements for the regenerative life support systems of manned spacecraft in the design phase. Defined is a standard set of target indicators (technical requirements) for the regenerative life support systems. The structure and purpose of the simulation functional model of the integrated regeneration atmosphere revitalization system of the manned spacecraft are considered. Formalized descriptions of processes occurring in the carbon dioxide hydrogenation reactor are proposed, computational experiments using the simulation model are carried out. A comparative analysis of experimentally obtained data with the results of computational experiments is presented, and the optimal values of input parameters of the hydrogenation reactor operation are determined.
Key words: manned spacecraft, regenerative life support system, target indicators, mathematical model, carbon dioxide hydrogenation reactor.
ROBOTS, MECHATRONICS AND ROBOTIC SYSTEMS
Docking mechanism of the probe–cone type have been using for about 40 years to dock Russian spacecraft and modules. The paper proposes a new kinematical scheme for such a mechanism in order to reduce contact dynamic loads and to provide a capability to dock with passive parts which have receiving cones of various conigurations. The new mechanism has the following distinctive features that set it apart from the existing design. A two-stage friction clutch is used instead spring and electromagnetic brakes in axial damper. The universal joint of moving body was relocated to the base of docking mechanism and orientation of springs and electromagnetic brakes of lateral damper is changed to accommodate this new position. The aligning levers rollers of existing mechanism are replaced with a limit device that can move along longitudinal axes of moving body. The new docking mechanism is designed, primarily, for new advanced manned spacecraft, as well as other spacecraft and modules.
Key words: spacecraft, docking mechanism, dynamic loads.
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES
Zaytsev K.I., Polovnev A.L.
Identifying pulse noises in the service module of the ISS Russian segment
The paper presents the results of processing the onboard pulsed noises recorded by the scientiic equipment «Means of Real-time Determination of the Puncture-point Location» in the space experiment Proboi («Puncture») using small microphones installed inside the Service Module of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS RS) during the work of the crews of ISS-41/42, ISS-43/44 and ISS-45/46.
Developed and implemented in the form of a software code was an algorithm for recognizing sources of pulsed acoustic noises acting onboard the Service Module of the ISS RS. Parametric studies were done on the resolution of coefficients of linear correlations for various spectral representations. An informed choice of parameters for spectral and correlation analyses was performed.
A correlation matrix of 1/3-octave spectra was generated, which contains clearly deined groups of pulsed noises, including a group corresponding to signal spectra of the puncture simulator, which was placed at more than 100 points within the volume of the Service Module, including spaces behind the panels.
There are plans to use the algorithm in updating the software for the scientiic equipment for identifying in real-time pulsed signals of a puncture with transmission of telemetry data to Earth in Expedition ISS-53/54.
The results of the studies demonstrate that in principle it is feasible to identify sources of pulsed noise onboard the ISS RS.
Key words: identiication of pulsed noises, space experiment «Proboi», algorithm for recognizing sources of pulsed acoustic noises, linear correlation coeicient, 1/3-octave spectrum, correlation matrix, pulsed signals of puncture.
¹ 4 (19) october-december 2017