The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹ 2 (17), 2017
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES
Derechin A.G., Zharova L.N., Sinyavskiy V.V., Solntsev V.L., Sorokin I.V.
International cooperation in the sphere of manned lights. Part 2. Development and operation of the International Space Station
Problems of the international cooperation during development and operation of the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. The history of the project and the structure of the joint management bodies are given. The solution of international legal matters is considered including property and resource allocation issues. The difficulties of the Russian party when financing the program in the nineties and in the early 2000s are described. The progress of the program is described, it is noted that Russia has fulfilled its international obligations. The role of RSC Energia in providing manned and cargo flights to the ISS upon termination of the U.S. space shuttle flights is emphasized. The results of cooperation and the examples of mutual assistance of partners, difficulties of generating. Segments and agreements on prolongation of the ISS operation are shown. Space experiments made jointly with foreign colleagues are briefly listed.
Key words: manned cosmonautics, International cooperation, the International Space Station, the ISS, the Russian Segment, scientific experiments, international legal matters, financing the ISS program.
FLYING VEHICLES AERODYNAMICS AND HEAT EXCHANGE PROCESSES
Arkhipov A.B., Bryukhanov N.A., Dementyev V.K., Dyadkin A.A., Komarov V.V., Ponomarev N.B., Ponomarev A.A.
Experimental studies of acoustic efects of propulsive landing system jets on reentry vehicle of crew transportation spacecraft
The paper presents results of model-test studies of acoustic effects on the surface of the reentry vehicle of jets from vertical and horizontal braking nozzles of solid rocket landing engines of the advanced crew transportation system reentry vehicle.
The experimental studies were run in an anechoic box of the differential nozzle testing facility the Keldysh Center at 60…120 kg-f/cm2 full pressure of working medium upstream of the nozzles, using high-temperature combustion products of air-ethanol propellant and cold air. The experimental studies were run using a landing surface mockup on a 1:7 scaled model of the reentry vehicle, which had all the nozzles of the propulsive landing system, as well as on a 1:1.5 scaled model of a single vertical braking nozzle with adjustable throat section and a mockup of a fragment of the aft section of the reentry vehicle. The obtained experimental data were scaled up to full-size conditions, which was necessary to determine the acoustic environment inside the crew cabin of the reentry vehicle and vibrations induced by the external acoustic field and acting upon the hardware and avionics components of the reentry vehicle.
Key words: reentry vehicle, solid-rocket landing system, landing surface, nozzle with adjustable throat section, acoustic effects of a jet.
Ganiev Yu.Kh., Gobyzov O.A., Lozhkin Yu.A., Rabetskiy A.S., Ryabov M.N., Filippov S.E., Shmanenkov V.N.
A study of the supersonic low ield around a lat plate with obstructions using the method of luminescent pressure transducers
The experience of developing rocket and space hardware in recent years has shown a steady increase in the proportion of vehicles with highly nonlinear aerodynamic properties and a trend away from geometric forms reducible to axisymmetric modeling problems. This is what drove development and introduction into experimental research at TsNIIMash of new methods and techniques for visualizing complex 3D patterns of detached flows occurring in the vicinity of control surfaces and superstructures.
Of interest in its own right is a study of origination of developed detached flow zones, pressure pulsations, vortex formations, condensation of individual components of gas flows and other transient processes, which need to be taken into account in the course of aerodynamic testing of advanced flying vehicles and complex engineering systems.
This paper discusses the results of experimental studies of patterns of spatial supersonic gas flow upstream of flat obstacles installed on the plate. Shadow method was used to obtain the pattern of flow around an obstacle in the flow axial plane perpendicular to the model. The main objective of the study was to simultaneously record pressure fields on the plate surface using the method of luminescent pressure transducers. The obtained pressure profiles were used as a basis for calculating aerodynamic loads on the model surface and conducting an analysis of the flow pattern in the separated-flow region upstream of the obstacle.
Key words: supersonic flow, planar optical measurements, pressure sensitive paint, three-dimensional flow separation.
FLYING VEHICLES ENGINEERING, DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Mironov V.V., Tolkach M.A.
Models of meteoroid environment in near-Earth space and determination of the meteoroid lux density
The tasks of evaluating the risk of damage against exposure to meteoroids and space debris of spacecraft are of crucial importance. Probability does not damage of spacecraft depends on the properties of its structural elements and the flux density of high-velocity particles. Impact properties of structural elements are determined by their ability to withstand high-speed impacts and describes by ballistic limit equations. This paper presents an analytical review of works for meteoroid flux density assessment, mostly foreign, based on several of Meteoroid Environment Models. General requirements, applicable to the experimental data, which might be considered appropriate for more general dependencies, suitable for the evaluation of meteoroid flux density are formulated. The values of the meteoroids flux density from different models, including the model presented in the current domestic standard are compared. Based on the analysis of the experimental data accumulated to date, analytical dependence for computing integral flux density of meteoroids near the Earth is offered.
Key words: meteoroid, space debris, the protection of spacecraft from meteoroids, meteoroids environment, flux density of meteoroids.
FLYING VEHICLES STRENGTH AND THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS
Bezmozgiy I.M., Bobylev S.S., Soinskiy A.N., Chernyagin A.G.
The efect of thrust cut-of of the third stage of the launch vehicle on the loading and strength of the transport cargo vehicle structure .....
This paper presents a study of the structural dynamic response of the Progress transport cargo vehicle (TCV) to a trust cut-off of the final stage of the Soyuz launch vehicle (LV). The impulse effect on the structure consisting of TCV and LV third stage was studied in the following two cases: the first case with a typical thrust cut-off, and the second case with a reduced gradient of the thrust decay. The studies were performed based on a multi-level dynamical modeling of the structures. The implemented technology made it possible to obtain the following results, i.e. to determine the configuration of the transformed impact reduced to any cross section of the vehicle; give an exhaustive estimation of the dynamic structural response to an impulse action; categorize the structures with the most intensive response to the impulse action; localize the area of the TCV structure with the highest level of the strain-stress state.
The studies made it possible to make the following main conclusions: the thrust cut-off of the final stage does not generate energy-intensive dynamic effects; the reduction of the thrust decay gradient reduces the structural loading level of by a factor of 1.5; a maximum stress level appears in a narrow area on one of the beams of the instrument compartment frame with a number of cycles less than 10; for the typical engine thrust cut-off the safety margin for peak stresses is more than two, and for a modified thrust cut-off it is more than three.
The results presented in the paper show that the LV third engine thrust cut-off is not a design case. It does not create a stress condition close to a critical state and does not affect the strength of TCV.
Key words: Progress TCV, LV thrust cut-off, dynamics of structures, modeling, loading, strain-stress state, strength.
Basov A.A., Leksin M.A., Prokhorov Yu.M.
A two-phase loop of thermal control system of science-power module. Numerical simulation of hydraulic characteristics
Issues of a structural design of thermal control system of a new science-power module of the International Space Station Russian Segment using a two-phase loop for heat discharge to the environment are considered. Description and logic of operation of a two-phase loop and elements being a part of it are given.
The simulation procedure and the results of numerical simulation of hydraulic characteristics of a two-phase loop are stated. The whole system was divided into separate sections. For each section a hydraulic characteristic was determined depending on the flow rate of liquid ammonia or its vapour with regard to hydraulic characteristics of specific units, circuit layout, length and diameter of pipelines connecting these units between themselves.
The obtained values of hydraulic characteristics in different sections of the fluid network allow to conclude about operability of the selected configuration system and confirm the stated characteristics provided by thermal control system.
Key words: two-phase loop, thermal control system, spacecraft, hydraulic design, numerical simulation, science-power module.
GROUND FACILITIES, LAUNCHING EQUIPMENT, OPERATION OF FLYING VEHICLES
Kaleri A.Yu., Kukin O.N., Serov M.V.
Methodology of cosmonauts light-testing activities in the course of manned transportation spacecraft development
The paper discusses organizing the activities of cosmonauts-testers on the basis of a common methodology allowing supporting preparations and running of flight tests on the new-generation crew transportation spacecraft. The methodology of flight-testing activities of cosmonauts-testers in the course of development of a crew transportation spacecraft is distinct from the existing way of doing things, first of all, in terms of productivity and focusing on innovation. The proposed methodology is considered as a system of principles and methods of organizing and structuring activities, as a theory about structure, logical organization, methods and means of activities. It presents constituent parts of the methodology, its structure in terms of logic and timing, procedure for performing the work, current results of applying the methodology at RSC Energia.
Key words: methodology, cosmonaut, crew transportation spacecraft, flight testing activities, innovation activity.
Svechkin V.P., Savelyev A.A., Sokolova S.P., Borozdina O.V.
Thermal control coating K-208Cp.Technology, properties and their changes in the operation process under the efect of space factors .
This article presents a composition of nominal thermal control coating package based on coating Ê-208Ñð components. The main results of research of the technology development and testing thermal control coating Ê-208Ñð of the solar reflectors class are stated. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal control coating Ê-208Ñð are given. The chemical composition and a way of making optical glass plates Ê-208 are indicated, as well as the glass plates processing before applying highly reflective coating. The advantages of the magnetron method used for applying highly reflective and protective coatings are given and justified. The layout diagram of the vacuum chamber sputtering unit, sequence of applying silver and stainless steel, features of the process for the maximum performance are described. The summarized data on the space factors effect on thermal control coating Ê-208Ñð are given, as well as the results of their effect and the results of the ground and flight tests of the coating.
Key words: thermal control coating, coating components, space factors.
CHECKING AND TESTING FLYING VEHICLES AND THEIR SYSTEMS
Belonogov G.V., Vorobyev Yu.À., Gukalo À.À., Magzhanov R.Ì., Sokolova S.P., Tsygankov O.S.
First experience to clean the external surface of the spacecraft window panel
The technological operation for cleaning the window panel external surface of the Service Module being part of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station is presented. The work was prepared by specialists of S.P. Korolev Rocket & Space Public Corporation Energia and for the first time in practice of manned spacecraft operation was performed during extravehicular activity on August 10, 2015 by cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Mikhail Kornienko. The article underlines the importance of cleanliness of the mentioned window panels for their intended use, the examples of their actual state are given, some assumptions about the sources and causes of pollution are stated, the urgency of this problem is substantiated and the approach to its solution is shown including demonstration of the capability of mechanical removal of the fine dust layer in the scope of space experiment Test. The cleaning device is shown, the description of manipulations and actions of cosmonauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) is given. Preliminary data on the composition of the refinement products which were returned to Earth and subjected to physicochemical analysis is obtained as an additional result of these activities. Research will be continued in the interests of rationalizing the treatment technology and dust prevention.
Key words: window panel, surface condition, extravehicular activity, fine dust, mechanical treatment.
¹ 2 (17) april-june 2017