The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹2 (13), 2016
FLYING VEHICLES AERODYNAMICS AND HEAT EXCHANGE PROCESSES
INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES
Bideev A.G., Gorbova N.V., Kuzmin V.V., Kaportseva G.N., Lakhin Î.I., Novikov À.L.,
Polnikov À.S., Simonova Å.V., Skobelev P.Î., Sycheva M.V., Uspenskaya N.V., Khamits I.I.
Results of putting into operation the multi-agent system for scheduling of flight program, cargo low and resource management of ISS Russian Segment
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of implementing the interactive multi-agent system for scheduling of light program, cargo low and resource management of International Space Station Russian segment within RSC Energia. The system consists of several software modules, each responsible for generating a schedule for an aspect of the International Space Station logistics and monitoring the deviations as the plans are implemented. We assessed the length of main project stages, the capabilities of each software module and their input on the total increase in performance. Usage of the system greatly increased the speed of generating and updating schedules, allowed for the flexibility and promptness in decision-making and increased the efficiency of using the International Space Station resources.
Key words: multi-agent system, International Space Station Russian segment, light program, cargo low, International Space Station logistics, operation results, adaptive scheduling.
Kalinkin D.A., Komarov M.V.
Project-oriented training of foreign customer specialists in space technic creation process of RSC Energia
The first in rocket and space branch experience of project-oriented foreign customer specialist’s team loop organization is presented in this article. The training is carried out on spacecraft development direction through international commercial contract. The practical training organization principals requests are defined and practical recommendations on requests implementation are given. Methodology of specialist training as a practical training on engineering-plant trough creation of Space Craft is proposed. Main phases of training and results are considered. Practical training arrangement and realization and trainees achievement assessments are presented. Scheme of customer trainees’ participation into contract phase review procedure is considered and order of this participation process is offered. Long-term benefits of customer trainees’ practical training realization trough designing, construction, experimental refining, assembly and tests of automatic spacecraft for the customer and for technic developer-enterprise are presented.
Key words: spacecraft design, practical training, foreign specialists training organization, competence, benefits.
FLYING VEHICLES ENGINEERING, DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Khamits I.I., Filippov I.M., Burylov L.S., Medvedev N.G., Chernetsova A.A., Zarubin V.S., Feldstein V.A., Buslov E.P., Li A.A., Gorbunov Yu.V.
Large transformable structures for advanced manned complexes
Since 2012 RSC Energia, within the framework of investment project Development of a Prototype Transformable Habitable Space Module has been conducting independent design work on transformable modules, construction and developmental testing of a scale model of a transformable module and fragments of a multilayer transformable pressurized shell. The paper covers main results of the work completed under the project, including tests of fragments of a multilayer transformable pressurized shell, selection of the micrometeoroid protection design and its developmental testing, manufacturing and ground testing of a scale mockup of the transformable module. In addition to this, the paper describes the outlook for further implementation of the project to develop a midsized experimental transformable module, as well as to use the developed technology of inflatable transformable modules in the interests of development of the Russian manned space flight.
Key words: transformable module, multilayer transformable pressurized shell, micrometeoroid protection, transformable structures.
FLYING VEHICLES STRENGTH AND THERMAL ENVIRONMENTS
The article describes a distortion of thin-wall shells caused by transverse and longitudinal shrinkage of a structural material during formation of a joint weld. This phenomenon is typical for fuel tanks of launch vehicles, upper stages, propulsion systems of space vehicles and spacecraft and pressurized compartments, i.e. habitable, cargo, instrument compartments. The procedure of approximating the distorted shell shape is presented, and examples of calculation of stress-strain behavior of the shell with the geometry actually obtained in manufacturing are given. It is shown how drastically stresses vary in the area of shrinkage cavities as compared to stresses in the shell of a regular shape. Given are calculation results and experimental data on decrease of a load-bearing capability of the shells of high-strength materials, as well as many-fold reduction of service life of shells made of a high-ductile material under cyclic loading due to geometrical distortion. It is shown that the joint weld in conjunction with a modified geometry of the shell is the most vulnerable structural point in terms of strength. The highest dependence on the shrinkage cavities of high-strength materials is specified. Cases of development of rocket and space structures are provided.
Key words: shell, shrinkage cavities, shape distortion, calculations, stress-strain behavior, strength.
FLYING VEHICLES THERMAL, ELECTRIC PROPULSION ENGINES AND POWER GENERATING SYSTEMS
Arkhangelsky N.I., Akimov V.N., Kuvshinova E.Yu., Sinitsyn A.A.
Selecting parameters of elliptical basing orbit to improve safety of nuclear reusable tugs
The design-ballistic analysis of the effect of parameters of elliptical basing orbits of the reusable interorbital tug based on the nuclear power plant and electrorocket propulsion system of megawatt-class safety and efficiency of its use in the program which provides heavy cargo traic to geostationary and near-Moon orbits has been made. It is shown that in comparison with the option of traditionally considered circular radiation safe orbit of altitude Hcir = 800 km the use of high elliptical basing orbits allows to reduce by approximately two orders the duration of staying in the single light of the tug itself and the launched payload in the area of intensive contamination with anthropogenic space debris. In this case the total weight of the payload to be delivered by the tug to target orbit can be signiicantly increased during its life cycle, as well as the xenon consumption per unit of weight of the payload to be delivered can be reduced several times.
Key words: reusable interorbital tug, nuclear power plant, electrorocket propulsion system, basing orbit.
GROUND FACILITIES, LAUNCHING EQUIPMENT, OPERATION OF FLYING VEHICLES
Currently the tests of unmanned spacecraft are conducted in the automated mode using the
corresponding software at the computer-aided test facility. In the development phase there is a
problem of evaluating the execution of design documentation. Such an evaluation can be made using
automatically generated test protocols to be analyzed. Their quantity is large enough to perform this
operation manually. To solve this problem the support software which can make such an evaluation
by data of protocols and test programs was developed.
When using this approach for one of the spacecraft prototypes developed by design bureau Arsenal one can get the results correlating with the requirements for qualitative evaluation of the development test. Thus, the proposed method proved its eiciency during inderect evaluation of the spacecraft test results.
The proposed approach allowed to solve the problem of evaluating the results with presentation of statistical values which earlier were not known for a fact.
Key words: tests, test software, test results analysis, unmanned spacecraft.
Borisov M.I., Vladykin S.A., Zhartovsky G.S., Lozhkin D.S., Pakhmutov P.A., Pochekutov D.V., Sumarokov A.V., Fedoseev S.V.
Angular accelerometer for bench microvibration testing of high-precision guidance and stabilization system for line-of-sight of science hardware
The article describes the angular accelerometer developed for bench tests and development testing of high-precision guidance and stabilization systems for science hardware line-of-sight. Consideration is given to known structures and measurement designs for one-component angular accelerations. It is shown that only converters with proven metrological properties shall be used for high-precision measurements of microvibration parameters of science hardware. The developed accelerometer is intended for one-component measurements of angular vibration parameters when exposed to multidimensional vibration from units of arc seconds and higher within the frequency range from fractions to several hundreds of Hertz. The accelerometer was used in investigations of microvibration of twoaxial guidance platform «Monitor» in ground conditions on a specially designed desaturation bench before its installation on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station.
Key words: angular accelerometer, multi-dimensional vibration, one-component measurements of microvibrations, desaturation bench, two-axial guidance platform.
CHECKING AND TESTING FLYING VEHICLES AND THEIR SYSTEMS
Belyaev B.I., Belyaev Ì.Yu., Sarmin E.E., Gusev V.F., Desinov L.V., Ivanov V.À., Krot Yu.À., Martinov À.Î., Ryazantsev V.V., Sosenko V.À.
Design and flight tests of science hardware Video-Spectral System on board the Russian Segment of the ISS
Earth remote sensing including monitoring of catastrophic phenomena within space experiment
Uragan on board the Russian Segment of the International Space Station is performed using
digital single-lens reflect cameras with long-focal-length lens and manual spectrometric devices
(science hardware Photo-spectral system). To increase the information content and interpretation
quality of the data obtained science hardware Video-spectral system was delivered to the Russian
segment of the International Space Station in October 2014 to measure the spectral density
of radiance of 270 local zones of the underlying terrain of about 40 m in size with a spectral
resolution no less than 5 nm in the range of 400 ... 950 nm.
The article describes technical characteristics, main tasks, as well as the first measurements of the science hardware Video-spectral system.
Key words: Earth remote sensing, spectrometers, Video-spectral system, space experiment Uragan.
FLYING VEHICLES DYNAMICS, TRAJECTORY AND MOTION CONTROL
The paper discusses the problem of controlling a satellite with the use of low-thrust engines during its transfer from the injection orbit established by the launch vehicle to the sun-synchronous orbit with stable altitude proile and repeating ground track. It is assumed that duration of each maneuver is limited and the orbital averaged eccentricity vector is forced towards the centre of the circle drawn by the eccentricity vector during its natural passive drift. The optimal parameters (semi-major axis, eccentricity and argument of perigee) of the injection orbit that provide minimum duration of the transfer are determined within the limits of the speciied conditions. The track shift and deviation of local time of ascending node accumulated during multiple-turn transfer period are estimated. It is shown that the deviation of local time of ascending node has to be taken into account when calculating right ascension of ascending node of the injection orbit and the track shift has to be removed at the end of transfer to the operational orbit. The achieved results are intended for design estimations of satellite’s orbital parameters, transfer duration and propellant consumption.
Key words: sun-synchronous orbit, frozen altitude, low thrust.
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, CONTROL AND DATA PROCESSING
Brega A.N., Kovalenko A.A.
Command and program control of the mission of the International Space Station Russian Segment
In the course of carrying out a mission of a spacecraft (SC), its onboard systems need to be commanded from the ground. Traditionally, commands are sent from three sources: Mission control center, the onboard control system, the crew (for manned SC). This paper addresses the problems of command-and-program control of the mission of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station from the ground control system. The command and program control of a SC involves implementation of planned SC operations using command RF link and the SC onboard control system. Meant by operations in this case can be the combination of SC control actions «integrated through an overarching design and aimed at achieving a speciic goal». In order to carry out a light operation, a number of problems in command and program controlling need to be solved. This paper will mostly focus on the following problems: generating command and program data arrays for carrying out light operations, verifying command and program data using a math model of the onboard control system.
Key words: mission control, command and program data, onboard control system.
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES
Bronnikov S.V., Karavaev D.Yu., Rozhkov A.S.
Investigation of geo-tagging technology and capabilities for Earth images obtained on human space vehicle using freely movable cameras
An angular system for geo-tagging of photographic images taken by cosmonauts using a freely movable camera is described. The development testing results for such authors-proposed system construction options developed based on a small-size sensor of Xsens Technologies B.V. (the Netherlands), sensor of Research and Production Company Optolink (Moscow), ultrasonic sensors of RUÑAP (Moscow) are presented. The proposed system options are investigated within space experiment Vizir. A description of the developed system composition, key performance, algorithm for computing photographic image center coordinates are provided. A new mode of computer-aided photographic equipment pointing to specified earth surface objects via voice commands is described. Calculation examples are given, and further research areas are formulated.
Key words: Earth photo imagery, Earth image geo-tagging, manned on-orbit station, crew.
¹ 2 (13) april-june 2016