Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹3 (10), 2015
STRATEGY AND PROSPECT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Komarov I.A., Milovanov A.G., Chmarov K.V.
Vostochny launch site — the future of Russian spaceflight
Implementation of large-scale space projects, including manned projects, and the need to have an independent access to space from the Russian territory requires construction of a new launch site. The paper presents statistics of launch vehicle launched by the leading spacefaring nations over the last eight years and the demonstrates the leading role Russia plays in provision of launch services. Now, most of the launches are carried out from the Baikonur launch site leased from the republic of Kazakhstan. The paper discusses the conditions for selecting the location for the new launch site and the driving factors for selecting the location for the Vostochny launch site in the Amur region, including geographical and political factors, the possibility of using local resources, as well as succession to the military launch site Svobodny. The launch vehicles to be used are the launch vehicles belonging to the Angara family. The paper presents milestones in the launch site construction, and the system of cooperation, coordination and management of activities of organizations from different agencies involved in the construction effort. The paper points out that space exploration from the territory of Amur region is the most ambitious project for the development of the region.
Key words: space exploration, launch site, Vostochny launch site, Svobodny launch site, Angara launch vehicle, Amur region.
BALLISTICS, AERODYNAMICS, FLIGHT DYNAMICS, STRENGTH
Bezmozgiy I.M., Sofinskiy A.N., Chernyagin A.G.
Vibration strength design for the Node Module of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station
RSC Energia has developed a new module for the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. It is a pressurized spherical habitable compartment with six docking ports. The module was given the name Node Module. The paper presents the complete cycle of solving engineering problems for assuring vibration strength in the course of the module development. It discusses how the finite-element model of the structure was generated. It provides the model configuration, structure and dimensions. It points out specific features of the product’s structure and their reflection in the finite-element model. The computations were performed in the ANSYS software package. The paper presents the work with the model in the course of both calculations and developmental testing. Test results are presented. An actual structural failure is described. The paper cites the errors that caused the failure and corrective measures that were taken. It provides comparative results of calculations and measurements during tests. It shows the ways and methods of updating the model and adjusting it based on the test results. The dynamic finite-element model updated on the basis of the test results can be used as a means of monitoring the mechanical durability of the module primary structures in the course of its in-orbit operation. It also provides a reliable tool for analyzing the module structure in off-nominal situations.
Key words: International Space Station, nodal module, structure, vibration strength, finite-element model, calculation, developmental testing.
SPACE EXPLORATION. SPACE EXPERIMENTS HARDWARE, PROCEDURES AND RESULTS
Zelenyi L.M., Klimov S.I., Angarov V.N., Rodin V.G., Nazarov V.N., Sukhanov A.A., Batanov O.V., Gotlib V.M., Kalyuzhnyi A.V., Karedin V.N.,
Kozlov V.M., Kozlov I.V., Eismont N.A., Ledkov A.A., Novikov D.I., Korepanov V.E., Bodnar L., Szegedi P., Ferencz C., Papkov A.P., Lizunov A.A.
Space experiment «Microsatellite» on the Russian segment of the International Space Station
The last few decades saw serious changes in the scientific community’s understanding of the nature of lightning discharges in the Earth atmosphere, which, in particular, had to do with the use for such studies of the new scientific equipment installed on spacecraft. The existence of a physical process previously unknown to science, which was given the name of Terrestrial Gamma Flushes (TGF), was discovered in the early 1990s. It is characterized by extremely powerful gamma-bursts and radio-frequency pulses generated in the Earth’s upper atmosphere that are observable in a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum frequencies. In order to study this kind of processes and mechanisms generating gamma-bursts, electromagnetic emissions in a wide range of frequencies (including infrared and ultraviolet regions) during high-altitude atmospheric lightning discharges, it is necessary to be able to take ionospheric measurements with a very high time resolution (at the level of a few microseconds), as well as to take simultaneous measurements in the optical, radio and gamma bands. To address these important scientific problems, on January 25, 2012, using a cargo transportation spacecraft Progress-M, which had performed a mission for the infrastructure of the Iternational Space Station Russian Segment (ISS RS), an academic microsatellite Chibis-M was put into a standalone 513 km circular orbit with an inclination of 52°.
Key words: lightning discharges, upper atmosphere, ionosphere, gamma-radio-ultraviolet- x-ray radiation, microsatellite, on-board equipment.
Belyaev M.Yu., Wikelski M., Lampen M., Legostaev V.P., Muller U.,
Naumann W., Tertitsky G.M., Yurina O.A.
Technology for studying movements of animals and birds on Earth using ICARUS equipment on the Russian segment of the ISS
The paper reviews issues involved in the planned study of movements of animals and birds on earth using ICARUS equipment on the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS RS). It discusses principal methods for studying animal migrations, their advantages and drawbacks. It provides an analysis of the existing transmitters for animal movement studies. It describes a procedure for conducting experiments with ICARUS scientific equipment onboard the ISS RS and its configuration. A general view of the tag attached to an animal is provided along with its performance data. It describes an approach to the integration of onboard equipment of the ICARUS system into ISS RS. Performance data for the ICARUS onboard equipment antennas are provided. It describes a sequence of steps for establishing connection between a tag and the onboard equipment. It provides a description of the Movebank databank for storing animal tracking data and its major functions. It discusses the tasks of studies using science equipment ICARUS which is of interest for space experiment Uragan, that is being run on the ISS RS. It provides examples of possible studies of animal movement and migration before natural disasters, study and monitoring of dessimination of virus infections dangerous for human beings that are transmitted by animals, and mitigation of the risk of collisions between birds and air vehicles.
Key words: animal movement and migration, tag, transmitter, radiotelemetry, radio tracking, satellite tracking, ICARUS, space experiment, ISS RS.
DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION AND OPERATION
OF MANNED SPACECRAFT AND COMPLEXES
Obydennikov S.S., Titov V.A., Volkov O.N.
Data measurement system for monitoring and diagnostics of microaccelerations onboard the International Space Station Russian Segment
The paper makes a case for development of a Data Measurement System (DMS) to monitor and diagnose microaccelerations onboard manned space stations. It describes the evolution of DMS designs, starting with space stations Salyut-6, Salyut-7 and including the operational phase of the International Space Station Russian Segment (ISS RS). It provides examples of problems that were occurring when microacceleration levels onboard space stations were measured using the first-generation acceleration meters: linear optical accelerometers and microacceleration meters IMU-128. It describes the design of the first DMS element onboard the ISS RS: the Digital MicroAcceleration Meter (DMAM), which has been monitoring microaccelerations onboard the ISS RS since 2011. The paper discusses some of the results obtained using the DMAM, and draws the conclusion about the need to improve the DMS. It proposes ways to improve the DMS, which can be used both onboard the existing and future manned space stations.
Key words: orbital complexes, quasistatic microaccelerations, microgravity environment monitoring, microaccelaration sensors, dynamic operations.
ONBOARD AND GROUND CONTROL COMPLEXES AND SYSTEMS
Starovoytov E.I., Zubov N.E.
Using laser altimeter as a backup measuring device during spacecraft rendezvous in lunar orbit
The paper proposes using laser altimeter as a backup measuring device during manual control of spacecraft rendezvous in lunar orbit. It presents engineering specifications of laser and radar devices used for taking measurements during controlled descent onto the planetary surface, and during spacecraft rendezvous. An analysis was conducted of the requirements for laser altimeters as measuring devices in support of spacecraft rendezvous. Energy-based calculations of the measuring range were performed, taking into account the characteristics of the passive spacecraft and laser safety requirements. The paper discusses the methods of protecting the photodetector against saturation with the reflected signal. A relationship was identified between the level of attenuation provided an optical attenuator and the measuring distance, which protects the photodetector in close proximity to a diffusely reflecting passive spacecraft and a retroreflector. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of using a laser altimeter for manual control of spacecraft rendezvous in lunar orbit.
Key words: laser altimeter, laser ranging system, spacecraft, manual control of rendezvous, redundancy.
THERMAL CONTROL AND LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS. VITAL FUNCTIONS OF COSMONAUTS
Ushakov I.B, Bubeev Yu.A., Gushchin V.I., Boritko Ya.S.
On the subject of lunar exploration: some engineering-psychology and medical problems
Proposals of the Roscosmos and RAS Working Group of Moon exploration cause active discussion among scientists and space industry professionals. A number of engineering, psychological and medical aspects of Moon exploration are presented: prevention of adverse effects of combined effects of overload and weightlessness in flight to the Moon with prolonged exposure to the lunar gravity on operators perception and sensory-motor skills; lunar base habitability (optimal personal space, lighting, functional areas placement, conditions for work and recreation, communication, psychological support from the Earth); development of operators training complex, human-machine interface and distant robots monitoring systems, enabling the operator to manage complex machines with high reliability and optimum "psychophysiological cost" in terms of communication delay; development of medical and psychological criteria for selection and training of operators for lunar base and orbital space complex. The necessity of space engineers and physicians collaboration in these directions is substantiated.
Key words: Moon exploration, new equipment and technology, distant operating, professional performance, "psychophysiological cost", ecopsychology, habitability.
Kaleri A.Yu., Bronnikov S.V., Bubeev Yu.A., Rozhkov A.S., Isaev G.F.
Designing data display system of spacesuit for extravehicular activities
This article discusses issues of macrodesign of information display system (SDI) of space suit used to perform extravehicular activity (EVA). There are proposed internal and external criteria, mathematical formulation of the SDI optimization problem. Based on the analysis of the cosmonaut activity the new requirements for EVA suit SDI are developed, including follow: to create interfaces of SDI with vehicle systems pacecraft; cosmonaut navigation support; display of cosmonaut instruction; view obtaining photo or video images; display the current cosmonaut physiological parameters and recommendations for his functional state optimization. The concept of the two-level SDI design is proposed.
The first level is developed on the basis of highly reliable components with the required level of redundancy. The first level SDI analogue is the existing suit means of the information view. SDI second level is created on the basis of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. It is proposed to use on the SDI second level tablet computer (possibly in combination with goggles or projector). This approach corresponds to currently existing trend of building space vehicle equipment on the basis of COTS products. This speeds up the design process, but imposes more stringent requirements for the development and management systems requirements. The proposed approach can be applied in the design of SDI other complex systems.
Key words: cosmonaut extravehicular activity, spacesuit, display system, COTS products.
MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSES FOR ROCKET AND SPACE PRODUCTS
Morkovin A.V., Plotnikov A.D., Borisenko T.B.
Heat transfer medium for heat pipes and external hydraulic circuits of thermal control systems of unmanned and manned spacecraft
Articles it is written on a theme related to working out and a substantiation of a reliable operation of thermal control systems (TCS) of self-acting and piloted space vehicles. The article extends effects of long-term activity in RSC "Energia" in the field of working out, examinations and applications of heat transfer mediums in TCS space vehicle.
In the article the substantiation of necessity of search of heat transfer mediums TCS of self-acting space vehicles and piloted complexes in connection with new increased requirements of maintenance of long-term and a reliable operation is given. Requirements to uniphase and two-phase heat transfer mediums of P. are formulated properties of some heat transfer mediums on the basis of hydrocarbons, silicone and ïåðôòîðîðãàíè÷åñêèõ fluids Are given, selection of some heat transfer mediums is proved. Properties of the recommended heat transfer mediums are given. The developed training methodology of modelling containers and effects of examinations is featured. Effects of examination of rust resistance of some heat transfer mediums are given and recommendations for choice materials of contours are developed. The new heat-transfer medium for thermal pipes and outside contours with freezing temperature not above a minus 100 °Ñ is offered.
The practical importance of activity is confirmed by successful use of the developed and explored heat transfer mediums in TCS of some space vehicle.
Key words: the heat-carrier, density, viscosity, freezing temperature, thermal capacity, heat conductivity, corrosion.
Gavrelyuk O.P., Kirsanov V.G.
Guaranteed fuel load for space launch vehicles
The paper discusses specific aspects of procedures for determining guaranteed propellant loads for multistage space rockets, provides a list of disturbing factors, peculiarities of control systems and constraints affecting the amount of the guaranteed propellant load. It provides guaranteed propellant loads and their delta-v equivalents for a number of Russian space rockets. It considers in depth the determination of guaranteed propellant loads for the upper stage Block DM-SL within the integrated launch vehicle Zenit-3SL of the Sea Launch program. The authors demonstrated that introduction into the upper stage Block DM-SL of the main engine shutdown triggered by the exhaustion of propellant components along with the existing engine shutdown as a function of control system makes it possible to increase the mass of the spacecraft put into its final orbit by the upper stage Block DM-SL within the integrated launch vehicle Zenit-3SL.
Key words: guaranteed propellant load, integrated launch vehicle, upper stage, control system, perturbing factors, exhaustion of propellant components, insertion accuracy.
¹ 3 (10) july — september 2015