Magazine "Space Engineering and Technology"
¹2 (9), 2015
STRATEGY AND PROSPECT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Kovtun V.S., Korolev B.V., Sinyavskiy V.V., Smirnov I.V.
Space communication systems developed by S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia
Results of the first generation (MOLNIA) and last generation (YAMAL) communication satellite creation and operation as well as project-conceptual investigation of global communication system creation possibility were systematized. Communication satellite MOLNIA was designed by RSC-Energia directly for nominal communication system operation within the territory of the Soviet Union. After the first four successful launches the satellites were signed over to M.F. Reshetnev ISS for manufacturing and operation. The total satellite MOLNIA successful launches were 164. New high-efficiency communications equipment creation experiments performed particularly on the manned objects were described. There was considered the possibility of creation of global communication system based on three satellites with mass of 17...20 ton in the Geostationary Orbit (GSO), which has better performance characteristics comparative to the multi-satellite systems. The satellite is created by docking of two payload modules to the space platform in the GSO, at that, these modules may be replaced while in service. Platform may be created on the basis of thin-filmed solar arrays with power of 60...80 KW and dual-mode thermionic and thermoelectric nuclear power source with power of 400 KW in the mode of electrojet delivery or 160 KW in the mode of electric power supply to functional equipment with the operational life 15...20 years. There were showed the results of creation and more than 10-year-operation of geostationary communication satellites YAMAL-100 and than YAMAL-200. The satellite was created according to technology, which is new for the Russian space industry. High efficiency of communication satellites created on the basis of native technology was demonstrated. A share of YAMAL-100 in the operating Russian transponder overall balance was 10%, however it provided a volume of 60% regional and 50% central TV program broadcasting and 25% user Internet access. It was shown that the multifold possibilities for manufacturing of automated SC of different purpose are opened on the basis of the created platform YAMAL.
Key words: communication satellite MOLNIA, communication satellite YAMAL, global space communication system, solar arrays, nuclear power source, electrojet delivery, transponder, communication system control philosophy.
Solntsev V.L., Radugin I.S., Zadeba V.A.
Basic requirements for main engines of advanced liquid-propelled super-heavy launch vehicles
The paper presents the results of design studies conducted by RSC Energia on the subject of selecting main engines for an advanced super-heavy launch vehicle intended for manned missions to the Moon from the Vostochny launch site. Adopted as the prime criterion for the main engines selection was the concept of assuring the required level of reliability for the super-heavy rocket starting with its first launch through the use of engines developed on the basis of the tried-and-true reusable oxygen/kerosene liquid-propulsion rocket engines — NK-170 and starting the flight testing of the first stage of the rocket ahead of time by means of integrating it into a medium-lift launch vehicle. The paper discusses the efficiency of providing redundancy for propulsion systems of rocket stages from the standpoint of operational reliability and safety of the launch vehicle as a whole taking into account actual characteristics of emergency protection equipment.
Key words: super-heavy launch vehicle, space rocket system design, Vostochny launch site.
BALLISTICS, AERODYNAMICS, FLIGHT DYNAMICS, STRENGTH, SPACE EXPLORATION
Aksenov A.A., Dyadkin A.A., Moskalev I.V., Petrov N.K., Simakova T.V.
Computer simulation of the flow and the relative motion of the reentry vehicle and the parachute compartment hatch cover in the course of their separation during descent.
The paper addresses the simultaneous solution of the problems of determining aerodynamic properties and relative motion of the re-entry vehicle and the parachute container hatch door during their separation, performed by TESIS and RSC Energia using computer (math) simulations based on the FlowVision software package. The problem was solved in connection with the reentry vehicle of the advanced transportation vehicle that is under development by the RSC Energia. Studied was the effect on the separation process of the initial values of kinematic parameters of the reentry vehicle (flight velocity and altitude, angle of attack and roll, angular rates), forces of the cover pushers, drogue parachute lanyard and other factors. Critical parameter values were identified at which collisions are possible between the reentry vehicle and the parachute container hatch cover. Recommendations are provided for sizing and selecting the best structure of the computational grid, as well as the time integration step required for obtaining a satisfactory convergence when solving this kind of problems. Provided for some of the regimes that have been studied are time profiles for coefficients of aerodynamic forces and moments of the reentry vehicle and the parachute container hatch cover, relative coordinates of the center of mass of the hatch cover in the course of separation and its motion record, allowing to trace back the effects of the initial values of the variable parameters on the motion trajectory. It was established that instability of motion in the vicinity of the reentry vehicle, characteristic of these regimes of flow (Ì?~0,6...0,8; a =10...30°), and the asymmetry of flow that is produced in the process, as well as the initial angular rate of the spacecraft about its long axis produce a lateral force, roll and yaw moments and, as a result, spatial motion of the parachute container hatch cover with the motion trajectory leaving the plane of the angle of attack of the reentry vehicle.
Key words: separation, re-entry vehicle, aerodynamic characteristics, motion dynamics, trajectories.
DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION AND OPERATION OF MANNED SPACECRAFT AND COMPLEXES
Khulapko S.V., Lyagushin V.I., Arkhangelsky V.V., Shurshakov V.A., Nikolaev I.V., Smith M., Machrafi R
Measurement of neutron dose and energy spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent spherical phantom and on its surface on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station using bubble detectors during Matryoshka-R experiment.
Results of neutron dose equivalent and energy spectrum measurements inside the channels of a spherical phantom located in «Rassvet» (MRM1) module of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The measurements were carried out with «bubble dosimeter» scientific equipment in the framework of «Matryoshka-R» space experiment from May to August 2013 (ISS-35/36 expeditions). Neutron energy spectrum inside «Rassvet» module is in good agreement with measurements in other ISS modules and measurements onboard «Mir» orbital station and it has similar features («evaporation» and «cascade» peaks in 0,6...2,0 MeV and 15...50 MeV energy regions). On the spherical phantom surface, neutron daily dose equivalent rate is 154±13 ?Sv/day, while inside the spherical phantom it is 98±13 ?Sv/day, and contribution to the total neutron dose from > 15 MeV neutrons increased significantly.
Key words: bubble dosimeter, Matryoshka-R, neutron radiation, dose equivalent, spherical phantom, radiation safety.
Bideev A.G., Semin A.Yu., Kuznetsov A.V., Akhmedov M.R.
Designing a power supply system of the science and power module for the International Space Station Russian Segment.
Taking the design of the Science and Power Module of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station as an example, the paper provides a procedure and calculation formulas for the Power Supply Systems (PSS) of orbital spacecraft. It provides a rationale for the Science and Power Module PSS configuration, and describes an analysis of performance, feasibility and cost trade-offs. The hallmark of the procedure is the simultaneous consideration of periodic shadowings of solar arrays by structural elements of the station, of the efficiency of storage batteries and monitoring and control automatics, as well as requirements for maintaining thermal conditions. Based on the calculations, the decision was made to select the type of storage batteries which assures the least total costs. The procedure is applicable to the design of orbital spacecraft with a power supply system based on solar arrays and provides information which is useful in determining the configuration and engineering parameters of a PSS.
Key words: Power Supply System, solar arrays, storage batteries, photoelectric converters.
DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF UNMANNED SPACECRAFT, COMPLEXES AND SYSTEMS
Mezhin V.S., Pritykovsky B.P., Aversheva A.V.
An estimate of the effects of air environment on resonant frequencies and damping factors of solar arrays of spacecraft that are recorded during ground modal tests.
The validity of loads acting on structural elements of spacecraft solar arrays in the course of their on-orbit operation depends on the accuracy of determining their dynamic properties. Dynamic properties of solar arrays determined by calculations using finite element models (due to insufficient knowledge of some of the stiffness parameters of their structure) require experimental validation, which is perfomed by running ground modal tests. Since solar arrays have a large surface area while their structure has low mass, the values of their resonant frequencies and damping factors are affected by the air environment. The paper provides the calculation procedure and a quantitative estimate of the effect the surrounding air has on the resonant frequencies and damping factors determined in the course of ground modal tests on one of the solar arrays developed at RSC Energia.
Key words: dynamic properties, finite element model, modal survey tests, resonant frequency, damping factor, air environment.
LAUNCHERS, SPACE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS, ENGINES, PROPULSION AND POWER SYSTEMS
Vachnadze V.D., Ovechko-Filippov E.V., Smolentsev A.A., Sokolov B.A.
Development, upgrade phases and results of fifty years of operation of our country’s first closed-loop liquid rocket engine
The paper presents the results of work conducted at OKB-1 (RSC Energia) to develop our country’s first closed-loop (with two-stage combustion) liquid rocket engine (LRE) for upper stage L of the Molniya rocket system. Its development marked the transition of rocket technology to closed-loop LRE, which enabled an almost complete utilization of energy contained in various types of rocket propellants, a higher pressure in combustion chambers and significantly improved LRE performance. All this was impossible to achieve in open-loop engines due to higher losses in turbopump drives. The experience gained during development of this engine enables RSC Energia to develop main and steering engines for upper stages of Block D and DM type and Buran Orbiter which had high performance and reliability. The results of this work are still used by RSC Energia for the development of an advanced multifunctional LRE, the chamber of which is cooled with liquid oxygen.
Key words: main and steering engine, closed loop, two stage combustion, upper stage, liquid oxygen.
¹ 2 (9) april— june 2015