The Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹1 (8), 2015
STRATEGY AND PROSPECT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
50 years of extravehicular activity
The article is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the first human egress into space, which was implemented by Alexey Leonov on March 18, 1965 from spacecraft Voskhod-2. Consideration is given to essential scientific and technical, humanitarian and philosophical aspects of the phenomenon of extravehicular activity. The paper summaries a structure and functions, areas of scientific, engineering and experimental support of the extravehicular activity, current state of protective equipment, i.e. spacesuit, restraint aids for weightlessness and adaptive tools. The role and functions of S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia in generation and development of measures and methods ensuring a productive work for the crew outside the orbital station are highlighted. An individual human activity in outer space executed as a mankind space activity is emphasized. An attempt is made to identify an optimization vector of extravehicular activity directed to the end of the twenty-first century.
Key words: extravehicular activity, spacesuit, protective equipment, weightlessness, restraint aids, adaptive tools, development tests, cosmonaut, subject of space activity.
DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION AND OPERATION OF MANNED SPACECRAFT AND COMPLEXES
Belyaev M.Yu., Desinov L.V., Karavaev D.Yu., Legostaev V.P., Ryazantsev V.V., Yurina O.A.
Features of imaging the Earth surface and using the results of the imaging made by the ISS Russian segment crews
Features of the Earth surface imaging made by the International Space Station Russian Segment crews under the Uragan Program are analyzed. Problems and advantages of the Earth study from the manned orbital station the main of which is a capability of a quick intelligent response to the processes and phenomena suddenly occurring on the Earth surface are described. This capability is provided by the trained cosmonauts being onboard the Station, the availability of modern digital photographic, video and photospectral equipment and use of special mathematical support. Data on the developed software for planning observations with regard to geographical and meteorological conditions and processing the obtained images is given. The main trends in using the obtained space images for practical purposes are presented. The following is given: examples of the made unique images of volcano eruption, high water, flooding, algal bloom, forest fires, dust storms, glacier and iceberg motion dynamics as well as a system of concentric waves on the sea surface near the Darwin Island in the Pacific Ocean and unusual circular structures on the ice of the Baikal Lake. Based on the images obtained from the International Space Station the cause analysis of the catastrophic flooding occurred in Krymsk in 2012 is made.
Key words: Earth surface, space photographic imaging, digital images, monitoring, photographic imagery processing, orthophotoplan, observations planning, imaging features, use of space images.
Tsygankov O.S., Grebennikova T.V., Deshevaya E.A., Lapshin V.B., Ìîrozova M.A., Novikova N.D.,
Polikarpov N.A., Syroeshkin A.V., Shubralova E.V., Shuvalov V.A.
Study of the environment finely dispersed on the outer surface of the International Space Station and detection of microbiological objects in space experiment «Test»
Results of space experiment «Test», aimed at studying the state of the outer surface of the modules of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS), functioning in an aggressive external environment are considered in the work. The space experiment, which aims — identify prerequisites and possible mechanisms of the emergence and development of destructive processes on the surface of the ISS is described. Space experiment «Test» consists of two phases of research: the orbital and ground. Task of orbital phase is accompanying sampling of gas and dust precipitation on the surface of the station from the environment and degradation products of fine material of structural elements caused by exposure to cosmic radiation, corrosion processes, particle bombardment and other debris. For the first time in the world samples have been collected by astronaut-operator during operation «extravehicular Activities» («EVA») in a container-monoblok (sampler), which is supported by sterilized and hermetic throughout the experiment, including delivery to Earth. Task of ground phase is conducting physic-chemical, toxicological, microbiological and molecular analysis. The analysis showed the presence of viable microorganisms on the outer surface of the ISS, which allows you to put the question of the boundaries of the spread of the Earth’s biosphere and continue more in-depth study of the ecological state of isolated inhabited space objects.
Key words: International Space Station, dust and gas deposits, the fine environment degradation products of matrices, sampling viable organisms, Earth’s biosphere.
DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF UNMANNED SPACECRAFT, COMPLEXES AND SYSTEMS
Markov A.V., Matveeva T.V., Murtazin R.F., Smirnov A.V., Soloviev V.A., Sorokin I.V., Churilo I.V., Khamits I.I.
Launch procedure of microsatellites using Progress-M-type cargo transport vehicles
Small spacecraft are very important for solving scientific and applied tasks in near-Earth space. The International Space Station (ISS) program provided an opportunity to develop and implement new concepts of inserting microsatellites into orbit which can compete with the traditional method of delivering them into space aboard light-class launchers. Among the concepts there are micro- and nanosatellites launch by the Russian crewmembers of the ISS manually during their extravehicular activity, as well as injection into orbit in the automatic mode from board the ISS USOS when using an airlock and a robotic arm of the Kibo Module equipped with a special launching device for nanosatellites like CubeSat. The indicated concepts have special capabilities to carry out experiments, namely launch of microsatellite using as a launch platform for the Progress-M cargo transport vehicle which is as an important system element for the transport-technical support of the ISS flight. The launch is carried out in the autonomous flight phase of the vehicle upon completion of the main target task (cargo delivery to the Station). Only in this case microsatellite can be injected into the target orbit which does not necessarily have the same altitude as the ISS orbit. The microsatellite orbit parameters can change to the prescribed value at the expense of the propulsion system operation of the cargo vehicle onboard of which there is microsatellite. By this method the Chibis microsatellite was successfully launched into orbit of an altitude of about 500 km in 2012. This microsatellite was developed by the Institute of Space Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences and intended for remote investigation in a wide electromagnetic spectrum of physical processes in the upper atmosphere at lightning discharges using Groza science hardware set installed in it. Success of this responsible operation was provided by thorough preflight preparation for the experiment, during which a lot of labor-intensive computational and engineering problems were solved. These tasks included: development and manufacture of the microsatellite transporting and launching container; a cycle of “microsatellite–container” assembly ground tests; preparation of the microsatellite in the container for launch by the crew of the ISS Russian Segment; mathematical simulation, implementation of a safe ballistic scheme during the microsatellite separation from the cargo vehicle, etc. In this paper the methods used to solve the listed problems and the results obtained are analyzed. The space-proven methodology for launching microsatellites from cargo transport vehicles is presented. The hardware developed for these purposes is also described.
Key words: microsatellite, transporting and launching container.
MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSES FOR ROCKET AND SPACE PRODUCTS
Vorobiev Yu.A., Magzhanov R.M., Semenov V.I., Ustinov V.V., Feldshtein V.A., Chernyavsky A.G.
The effect of high-velocity impacts of meteoroids and space debris on the strength of glass in the windows of the International Space Station modules
The effect of meteoroid and space debris particles on spacecraft is one of the factors that have a significant impact on the reliable and safe operation of long-term manned space stations including the International Space Station (ISS). It is recognized that the required level of the ISS safety can only be achieved through the use of special protective aids (shields) in the module structures. It is impossible to use these shields on the windows of the ISS modules, since in the course of the mission some experiments involving imaging require that the windows stay open and their external panes are exposed to particles of micrometeoroids and space debris. In this connection, of special note is the estimate of the effects of the particle impacts on the damageability and the associated reduction in durability of the glasses, because only the understanding of the process of damage propagation can make it possible to predict the longevity of safe operation of windows and station as a whole. When the question of extending the station life was raised, the need arouse to conduct work to evaluate the probability of window glass failure in the presence of damage on glass surface. To address this problem, theoretical studies had to be conducted and confirmed through experiment. This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical research in the strength of window glass damaged by particle impacts required for evaluating the remaining endurance. This research made it possible to provide a rationale, with a sufficient degree of confidence, for extending the life of windows on the Russian Segment of the ISS and determine their remaining life at an actual moment in time.
Key words: window, meteoroids, space debris particles, durability, International Space Station, glass, extension, experimental and theoretical research.
THERMAL CONTROL AND LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS. VITAL FANCTIONS OF COSMONAUTS
Guzenberg A.S., Zheleznyakov A.G., Romanov S.Yu., Telegin A.A., Yurgin A.V
Selecting life support system for the crews of long duration space stations
The existing life support systems on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (RS ISS) only provide a partial recycling of water and oxygen from human waste products, and therefore, in order to support the ISS operations, additional supplies of water, oxygen, food and life-support hardware with limited service life need to be delivered by cargo vehicles. This situation makes it necessary to develop life-support systems with closed-loop recycling. The paper provides a rationale for the method of selecting a life support system with an increased efficiency of water and oxygen recycling from waste products based on the variable mass of deliverable equipment for the next stage in the ISS development. It also provides block diagrams of the recycling life support systems operating onboard the ISS. The principal results of flight operation of these systems since the end of 2000 through mid-2014 when supporting a crew of three validated the method for selecting the life support system. Recommendation is made for the final configuration of the ISS RS modules to increase the efficiency of water and oxygen recycling from the crew waste products by extracting oxygen from the carbon dioxide using the Sabatier process and reclaiming water from urine and all elements containing moisture.
Key words: human, spaceflight, habitat, life support system, water and oxygen recycling from waste products, variable mass of deliverable equipment, international standards.
Developing requirements for space station crew training
In order to prepare a space station crew for a space mission, it is necessary to establish and support the operations of the crew training system (CTS). These tasks can be fulfilled, if the CTS operational objectives are defined. The paper provides results of the work performed at RSC Energia to define the CTS objectives, and to develop requirements for technical training of the crews of Space Station. It was shown that the system of a higher tier with respect to the CTS is the automated spacecraft mission management system (ASCMMS), which drives the objectives of the CTS operation. Based on the analysis of the management processes, a conclusion is drawn that there should communication between ASCMMS and CTS at both design and operational phases. The paper addresses the structure of the training objectives, the objective specifier format, major sources of input for the development of the objectives. The notion of the level of crew competency in the task at hand is introduced. The process of objectives development, criterion for the quality of this process, the methods for improving its efficiency are described.
Key words: crew training system, automated space missions management system, space station, system objective, qualification requirements.
¹ 1 (8) january — march 2015