Space Engineering and Technology magazine
¹1 (4), 2014
STRATEGY AND PROSPECT FOR SPACE ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Brukhanov N.A., Legostaev V.P., Lobykin A.A., Lopota V.A., Sizentsev G.A., Sinyavskiy V.V., Sotnikov B.I., Filippov I.M., Shevchenko V.V.
Use of lunar resources for solar system exploration and exploitation in the 21st century
The paper discusses possible uses of the Moon for solar system exploration and exploitation. It provides an analysis of lunar resources. It reviews technological trends which provide a powerful boost to the development of new-generation space hardware, systems to support human life beyond Earth, and extraterrestrial application of smart robotic systems, processing and production systems. The existence of various points of view on the problems of lunar exploration with establishing on it a manned base does not make any less obvious the fact that this natural satellite of Earth, by dint of the logic of scientific and technological progress, is gradually being turned into one of the actual objects of the Earth civilization’s infrastructure. Building up lunar infrastructure as a component of the overall strategy of Solar system exploration, will make it possible to expand our knowledge in the field of fundamental cosmological problems, as well as mankind’s ability to study planetary systems in the Universe.
Key words:Lunar resources, helium-3, extraterrestrial human activities, new hardware and technologies, fundamental cosmogonic problems, Universe exploration observatory, unique physical experiments, space port, manned transportation system.
BALLISTICS, AERODYNAMICS, FLIGHT DYNAMICS,
STRENGTH, SPACE EXPLORATION
Alekseev P. A., Ekhlakov I. A., Ovcharenko M.K, Pyshko A.P.
About the feasibility of starting up a reactor by the neutron source provided by the space radiation in orbit
The paper discusses the feasibility of safe startup of an advanced thermionic conversion reactor in orbit by an external neutron source provided by the natural space radiation environment. It takes into account the significant nonuniformity of the space radiation proton flux along the track of the spacecraft carrying the nuclear power unit. The theoretical feasibility of safe startup of a reactor in 1200 km and 1500 km circular orbits is demonstrated.
Key words: space nuclear power system, radiation-safe orbit, nuclear reactor, space radiation protons, Software package MCNPX, Spase Environment Information System (SPENVIS).
DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION AND OPERATION
OF MANNED SPACECRAFT AND COMPLEXES
Belyaev B.I., Belyaev M.Yu., Desinov L.V., Rogovets A.V., Ryazantsev V.V., Sarmin E.E., Sosenko V.A.
Flight testing of research equipment “Photospectral system” onboard ISS RS
Scientific equipment «Photospectral system» has been delivered to Russian’s segment of International Space Station within the framework of space experiment «Uragan». In order to develop methods of earth surface imaging and selective spectrometry, this scientific equipment was used to conduct a series of synchronous three-tier experiments. The paper describes the photospectral system equipment and some of the results from the analysis of data received from the Russian’s segment of International Space Station during flight testing of the equipment.
Key words: Earth remote sensing, spectroscopy.
Bideev A.G., Karbovnichy V.P., Mayorov I.V., Novikov A.L., Skobelev P.O., Sycheva M.V.
The method of adaptive cargo traffic planning in the interactive multi-agent system for calculating the mission plan, cargo traffic and resources of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station
The paper discusses a method of adaptive cargo traffic planning for the International Space Station Russian Segment. The method is implemented in the multi-agent system for interactively constructing mission and cargo traffic plans and is based on an iterative algorithm for increasing the cargo and flight agents satisfaction, making it possible to construct through evolutionary means the preferable sequence of flight-by-flight cargo accommodation. It is demonstrated that the developed method makes it possible to solve complex planning tasks due to self-organization of cargo agents and flight agents, conducting negotiations to search for and making concessions to agree upon the balance of interests in the real-time events operations mode, in the same manner as it is usually done by experienced specialists (planners).
Key words: multi-agent systems, real-time, cargo traffic planning, needs and resources network, virtual market, iterative algorithm for improving solutions.
DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF
UNMANNED SPACECRAFT, COMPLEXES AND SYSTEMS
The paper discusses the use of the optical waveband for communication links between spacecraft. The paper cites its advantages in comparison with the radio frequency band. It is demonstrated that the full use of the optical waveband advantages can only be achieved when work with optical communications links between spacecraft follows a certain special procedure.
Key words: communications between spacecraft, optical waveband.
LAUNCHERS, SPACE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS,
ENGINES, PROPULSION AND POWER SYSTEMS
Boykachev V.N., Gusev Yu.G., Zhasan V.S., Kim V.P., Maptynov M.B., Murashko V.M., Nesterin I.M., Pilnikov A.V., Popov G.A.
On the possibility to develop a 10 to 30 kW electric propulsion system based on dual-mode thruster SPD-140D
On base of analysis of the modern state of the electric propulsion thruster development with powers 4,5...6 kW by Russian institutions it is shown that in the nearest future the flight version of the dual mode stationary plasma thruster SPD-140D and multifunctional Electric Propulsion Systems (EPS) with powers 10...30 kW could be created. Some results of the SPD-140D tests and breadboard discharge power supply unit ensuring operation of thruster under both modes as well as state of development of the propellant storage and management units are considered in the paper.
Key words: stationary plasma thruster, power, thrust, specific impulse, thrust efficiency, life time, electric propulsion system, discharge power supply.
Gurtovoy A.A., Lobov S.D., Rachuk V.S., Shostak A.V.
Work performed by Chemical Automatics Design Bureau to create oxygen-hydrogen liquid rocket engines
This article presents the results of work performed by Chemical Automatics Design Bureau to create oxygen-hydrogen engines. It presents the history and experience of creating the main liquid rocket engine RD0120 with the thrust of 200 ton-force, developed for reusable space transportation system Energia–Buran; and the basic results of developing the engines of the RD0146 family featuring a design that does not need a gas generator, which are intended for the upper stages of advanced launch vehicles.
Key words: oxygen, hydrogen, liquid rocket engine, launch vehicle.
ONBOARD AND GROUND CONTROL
COMPLEXES AND SYSTEMS
Zubov N.E., Starovoytov E.I., Savchuk D.V
Analysis of possibilities, optimization of mass and of power consumption for a laser altimeter controlling the descent of a spacecraft from the lunar orbit
A systematic analysis of factors influencing the operation of a laser altimeter controlling the descent of a spacecraft from the lunar orbit was completed. By using the method of searching for Pareto sets, a solution was found for the problem of optimizing power consumption and mass of a laser altimeter by the criteria of the mass of the receiving lens and the power consumed by the laser sources, which were assumed to be solid-state diode-pumped lasers. As a result, mass and consumed power values were found which meet the requirements for the existing models of these devices.
Key words: Laser altimeter, Space vehicles, Descent, Moon, Pareto optimization, Solid-state laser.
Brovkin A.G., Kravets V.G.
Automatic landing of the unmanned reusable orbiter BURAN
The paper discusses the problems that had to be solved in order to make it possible for the reusable orbiter BURAN to land in automatic mode. It provides a brief description of hardware and software configuration used both onboard and on the ground in order to achieve this objective. It presents the results of the BURAN orbiter flight obtained during the descent phase of the world’s first automatic landing of an orbiter on a runway.
Key words: reusable orbiter, automatic landing, orbiter autonomous control system onboard equipment, ground and onboard equipment for autonomous control system data updating, orbiter landing complex.
MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSES FOR ROCKET AND SPACE PRODUCTS
Mezhin V.S., Obukhov V.V.
The practice of using modal tests to verify finite element models of rocket and space hardware
The validity of loads applied to structural elements of spacecraft to a large extent depends on the accuracy of their computational finite element models. The paper discusses the process of verifying math models of rocket and space hardware, which includes the following stages: development of models, preparation for and implementation of modal survey tests, correlation analysis and updating of the models.
Key words: finite element model, modal survey tests, correlation analysis, updating of the model.
Akkuratov I.L., Alyamovsky A.I., Davydov D.Ya., Zaprudnov D.M., Kopyl N.I., Senkovsky A.N., Chernyavsky A.G.
An attempt to develop and build composite structural elements for an electro-optical module of a spacecraft
The paper presents results of engineering and manufacturing process studies for various design variants of structural elements for an electro-optical module. The structural element design that was selected consisted in honeycomb sandwich structure with base layers made of high-modulus carbon fiber reinforced plastic. The manufacturing process was developed and tested. The selected design and manufacturing solutions have been confirmed by the results of ground stand-alone tests.
Key words: structural elements, carbon plastic, supporting layers, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, characteristics of specific strength and hardness, honeycomb sandwich structure.
¹ 1 (4) january — march 2014