Geophysical rockets R-1B, R-1V, R-1D and R-1E


Rocket R-1D
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Rocket R-1D on launch pad
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To measure physical parameters in the upper rarefied atmosphere, rocket R-1A was already provided with the instrumentation system conventionally named "FIAN-1". The first geophysical experiments have been accommodated. The obtained data served as a basis to work out a large geophysical research program pursuing interests of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and designers of modified rocket R-1 intended for that purpose (R-1B, R-1V, R-1D, R-1E).
All four launches of rocket R-1B that took place in July - August 1951 were vertical with one launch failed. The rocket carried experimental animals accommodated in a special pressurized compartment to study their behavior in space environment. On July 1951 dogs Dezik and Tsygan were the first to successfully fly on rocket R-1B.
Rocket-R1V differed from R-1B only in that the FIAN-1 equipment was replaced by a parachute system to recover the rocket body. In total, two launches have been carried out in July - August 1951.
Unlike rockets R-1B and R-1V where experimental animals had to be returned in a pressurized compartment on a parachute, on rocket R-1D each of the two dogs was catapulted in a space suit mounted on a special cradle provided with a parachute system and a Life Support System. In addition, on rocket R-1D, instead of the FIAN-1 compartment, science hardware was accommodated to study vertical distribution of ionization density in ionosphere and propagation of super long waves in atmosphere and space. All three launches of rocket R-1D that took place in June-August 1951 were successful.
Through launches of rocket R-1E one more attempt has been made to solve the rocket body recovery problem. For this purpose, three powder boosters were provided on the warhead to impart a separation velocity of about 12 m/s to it. However, this was not sufficient enough. A new constructive option of the rocket body return system implied the use of a pyro gun that had not only to activate pilot chutes, but also simultaneously release parachute packages containing main cupolas. Totally, from January 1955 to April 1956, six launches have been carried out of which four were successful.







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