S.P.Korolev RSC Energia's "firsts":
1948 - Successful launch of the first home
ballistic missile R-1 developed by S.P. Korolev, Chief
1955 - Launch of the first mobile ballistic
missile from a submarine (R-11FM).
1956 - Launch of the first strategic ballistic
missile with a specific nose cone (R-5M)
1957 - Launch of the first intercontinental
ballistic missile R-7
1957 - Launch of the first artificial Earth's
1959 - Launch of interplanetary probe Luna-1,
which accomplished the first lunar fly-by
1959 - Interplanetary probe Luna-2 was the
first to reach the Moon's surface. It delivered there
national symbols of the USSR.
1959 - Interplanetary probe Luna-3 took the
first pictures of the far side of the Moon and transmitted
them to Earth
1961 - Launch of the first interplanetary probe
Venera-1 to Venus
1961 - First manned flight into space, the
mission of Yuri Gagarin on-board Vostok spacecraft
1962 - First "formation flying" in
space of two manned spacecraft, Vostok-3 and Vostok-4
1963 - First woman in space, the mission of
Valentina Tereshkova on-board Vostok-6
1964 - Launch of two satellites, Elektron-1
and Electron-2, with one launch vehicle. The first time
a satellite (Elektron-1) separates during powered flight
1965 - First space walk - Alexei Leonov was
the first person to leave a spacecraft and float in
1965 - Launch of interplanetary probe Venera-3,
which, in 1966 became the first spacecraft to reach
the surface of Venus. It delivered there national symbols
of the USSR.
1966 - First soft landing on the Moon (Luna-9
space probe) and transmission of pictures from its surface
1966 - First artificial satellite of the Moon
(Luna-10 space probe)
1967 - First automatic docking and undocking
of two unmanned spacecraft
1968 - Zond-5, the first spacecraft to complete
a flight along the Earth-Moon-Earth route, having passed
around the Moon, returned to the vicinity of Earth moving
with escape velocity
1969 - First docking of manned spacecraft (Soyuz-4
and Soyuz-5), and crew transfer from one spacecraft
to the other through open space.
1969 - First formation flying of three manned
spacecraft, Soyuz-6, Souyz-7 and Soyuz-8, during which
they maneuvered relative to each other, with ground
facilities providing simultaneous support for the three
1971 - Launch of the first long-duration manned
space station Salyut
1975 - First on-orbit docking of spacecraft
(Soyuz-19 and Apollo) of different countries (USSR and
1978 - Flight of the first logistics vehicle
Progress-1, which was the first to resupply propellant
to the propulsion system of the space station (Salyut-6)
1978 - Beginning of a wide international integration
for the implementation of the joint space programs (Czechoslovakia,
Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia,
Roumania, France, India, Syria, Afghanistan, Japan,
Great Britain, Kazakhstan, Austria, Germany).
1984 - First space walk of the woman cosmonaut
1986 - Beginning of deployment of space station
Mir, which was to become an international laboratory
1986 - First station-to-station transfer of
cosmonauts (on Soyuz T-15 spacecraft from Mir to Salyut-7
and back to Mir) with delivery of 400 kg of cargo for
its further use to Space Station Mir.
1988 - Development of the Energia-Buran multipurpose
rocket and space complex. First automatic landing of
the winged orbiter (Buran) to the airdrome when returning
1995 - Cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov sets the world
space endurance record by continuously staying in space
for 437 days 17 hours 58 minutes.
1995 - Long-duration flight of the woman cosmonaut
of 169 days (E.V. Kondakova)
1995 - First docking of high-mass vehicles
MIR (105 t) and Space Shuttle (104 t)
1995 - On-orbit manned complex MIR/SHUTTE with
a combined 10-member crew was first created
1995 - Record long-duration manned flights
on-board the MIR Station were first performed by foreign
astronauts: NASA - 115 days (N. Tagard), and
ESA - 179 days (T. Reiter)
1996 - Space operation of the unique facility
of the XX century, namely MIR Station, stepped over
a 10-year mark
1996 - Astronaut Shannon Lucid (USA) sets the
world space endurance record for women by continuously
staying in space for 188 days 04 hours 00 minutes, which
includes 183 days 23 hours 00 minutes on-board Mir.
1996 - Priroda module, which has no analogues
in the history of space exploration with regard to outfitting
with various research hardware and variety of capabilities
of its combination, is docked to the MIR Space Station
and put into operation. A complete configuration of
MIR station determined a classical configuration concept
of the manned on-orbit centre in the XX century.
1996 - MIR station became the first international
on-orbit research centre, on which starting from 1996
astronauts from different countries worked.
1996 - Station logistics support system by
using the reusable transport vehicle Space Shuttle was
first tested and modified as part of the station
1996 - Docking, long-duration free flight on-orbit
operations with subsequent redocking of Progress M vehicle
to the station was first tested, which will be implemented
on the manned research space centres in operation of
automatic periodically serviceable platforms as part
1996 - Launch of spacecraft Astra-1F by using
Upper Stage DM3 on demand of European organisation SES
marked Russia's entry to the International commercial
space market of launch vehicles
1997 - Cosmonaut A.Ya. Soloviev made 16 egresses
into space during five flights, set a record of a total
operation duration in space of 77 hours 46 min.
1997 - Following Progress M-34 collision with
the MIR space station repair and refurbishment activities
were conducted in extreme conditions and in the shortest
possible time, that allowed to maintain not only the
space station, but the prestige of Russian space technology
1997 - Flight experiment was first performed
to test a small space teleoperator and monitoring vehicle
Inspector intended to service future on-orbit stations
and space systems
1998 - Large-scale four-year Russian-American
program MIR-NASA is completed. It included nine dockings
of the Space Shuttle to MIR station. The U.S. astronauts
worked in orbit with the Russian crews for about two
1998 - the launch of the functional and cargo
module Zarya - the first module of the International
Space Station - started the implementation of this large-scale
international project of the 21st century.
1999 - beginning of flight tests of the rocket
segment of the Sea Launch system. A demo launch of Zenit-3SL
with upper stage DM-SL.
1999 - a new-generation communications satellite
Yamal-100 was put into its target orbit. After a 35-year
gap, RSC Energia resumed its work in the field of space
communications systems at a new qualitative level.
1999 - "Reflector" experiment was
conducted on-board Mir space station under a joint Russian-Georgian
program, making a start on a new line of activities
in the area of building large-diameter antennas (reflectors).
1999 - for the first time in the world the
crew of expedition 27 on Mir observed and recorded from
orbit a total solar eclipse.
1999 - an international panel in London awarded
the aerospace industry's most prestigious Francois-Xavier
Bagnio prize to manned space station Mir.
1999 - cosmonaut Sergei Avdeev sets an absolute
world record in total space endurance time of 747 days
14 hours 12 minutes (accrued over three missions).
2000 - for the first time in the world, a long-duration
(75 days) mission to Mir (expedition 28) was carried
out on a purely commercial basis by a Russian crew consisting
of S.V.Zaletin and A.Yu.Kaleri. This mission laid the
foundations for and verified the viability of a further
commercialization of space research.
2000 - completion of one of the most important
phases in the construction of the International Space
Station - in-orbit docking of Service Module Zvezda
with the Zarya-Unity module stack, making the space
station ready for operation in manned mode.
2000 - Soyuz TM-31 spacecraft delivered the
first international crew consisting of: Russian cosmonauts
- spacecraft commander Yu.P.Gidzenko and flight engineer
S.K.Krikalev; head of the expedition - NASA (USA) astronaut
W.Shepherd, which initiated operation of the International
Space Station in the permanently manned mode.
2000 - S.P.Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation
Energia in one year put into their target orbits 22
various spacecraft, thus setting a sort of a record
for one organization. This demonstrated the highest
level of organizational management and scientific and
technological potential of the company's workforce reached
by the end of the 20th century.
2001 - Mir in-orbit operational life exceeded
2001 - a one-of-a-kind operation - deorbiting
a 140 ton structure of Mir and bringing it down into
a specified area of the ocean.
2001 - the first mission of a space tourist
- an American D.Tito - as a member of the first visiting
crew (Yu.M.Baturin, T.A.Musabaev) on Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft
to the International Space Station, which initiated
a new line of activities in the area of manned spaceflight.
2002 - New Soyuz TMA modified transport manned vehicle
is brought into service.
2002 - 100 spacecraft have been
put into orbit over 25 years since the launch of the
first Progress transport cargo vehicle, which completely
fulfilled their mission tasks.
2003 - Two Yamal-200 telecommunication
satellites were first inserted into a geostationary orbit
to design points by one launch; after flight tests the
satellites were taken into nominal operation.
2003 - The Zenit-3SL launch vehicle of middle class with upper stage
DM-SL (Sea Launch) was first put into GEO of SC the mass
of which is commensurable with spacecraft launched by
Proton and Ariane-5 heavy launch vehicles.
2008 - The integrated launch vehicle Zenit-3SLB was launched for the first time
under the Land Launch program. Upper stage Block DM-SL - a new modification of Block DM
upper stage - put AMOS-3 spacecraft into its target orbit.
2008 - The first cargo transportation spacecraft Progress M-01M was launched,
representing a new spacecraft series with some of its on-board systems upgraded.