On July 17, 1975, for the first
time in the history of mankind, space vehicles belonging
to different nations - the Soviet and the American space
vehicles Soyuz-19 and Apollo - have performed rendezvous
and docking to deploy into an integrated orbital complex.
Envoys from the Soviet Union and the United
States of America, A.A. Leonov, V.N. Kubasov,
T. Stafford, V. Brandt, and D. Slaton, transferred
from one vehicle to the other and shook their hands to symbolize
cooperation of different nations both in space and on the
History of Soyuz-Apollo Test Project (ASTP)
President of the USSR Academy of Sciences
(AS), Academician M.V. Keldysh and Administrator of
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),
Doctor Pain initiated the mission feasibility discussions.
Moscow, October 1970. The first meeting of the
USSR and the US experts. The US delegation was headed by
R. Gilroot, Director of the Lyndon B. Johnson
Space Center, the Soviet delegation - by Academician B.N. Petrov,
the Chairman of the Board of International Cooperation in
Space Exploration, "INTERCOSMOS", at the USSR AS. Working
Groups were organized to negotiate technical requirements
for the compatibility of the Soviet and the American vehicles.
Houston, June 1971; Moscow, November.
Meetings of experts from the USSR AS and NASA, USA (headed
by B.N. Petrov and R. Gilroot. System requirements
for the space vehicles have been discussed, key technical
solutions and guidelines offering the compatibility of the
systems have been concurred including the potential for
manned missions on the available space vehicles in the mid-1970's
for purpose of testing rendezvous and docking equipment
Moscow, April 1972. The American delegation
headed at the time being by the acting Administrator of
NASA, Doctor J. Low and the Soviet delegation headed
by the acting President of the USSR AS, Academician V.A. Kotelnikov
have reviewed the work done and released a final document
reasoning that the test mission on the available space vehicles - the
Soviet Soyuz-type and the American Apollo-type vehicles
is feasible and desirable.
May 1972. The Intergovernmental Agreement
has been signed between the Soviet Union and the United
States of America for cooperation in space exploration for
peaceful purposes assuming activities under the Soyuz-Apollo
Project. Appointed Project Managers were: for the Soviet
part - K.D. Bushuev, a Corresponding Member of the
USSR AS, for the American part - Doctor G. Lanny.
Moscow, May 1975. The final meeting between
the USSR AS and NASA experts. The Project Managers and members
of Working Groups have reported the Project development
completion and mission readiness of Soyuz and Apollo space
vehicles. The mission readiness final report has been signed
by Academician V.A. Kotelnikov for the Soviet part
and doctor J. Low for the American part.
The Soyuz-19 and Apollo launch date July 15,
1975 has been approved
Mission Chart of Soyuz and Apollo Vehicles