Sergei Konstantinovich KRIKALEV
Soyuz TMA transport spacecraft Commander,
S.P. Korolev Rocket&Space Corporation Energia, Russia
DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: August 27, 1958, Leningrad (now
EDUCATION: In 1981 he graduated from the Leningrad Mechanical
Institute (Voyenmekh), the machine building department
specializing in the Flight Vehicle Design and Manufacturing;
got the honours diploma in Mechanical Engineering.
MARITAL STATUS: Married.
Wife: Yelena Yuryevna Terekhina born in 1956, works as
engineer at RSC Energia.
Daughter: Olga Sergeevna Krikaleva, born in 1990, goes
AWARD AND RANKS: Hero of the Soviet Union, Hero of the
Russian Federation, the USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut. Awards: Gold
Star Medal of the Hero of the Soviet Union; Order of Lenin;
Gold Star Medal of the Hero of the Russian Federation;
Order of Friendship of the Peoples. Awards from foreign
countries: officer of the Legion of Honour (France), the
NASA Space Flight Medals (1994, 1998, 2001); the NASA Distinguished
Service Medal. Awards of scientific and social organizations:
Order of Eagle First Class (Association of the Russian
HOBBIES: Aerobatic flying, swimming, scuba diving, Alpine
skiing, tennis, windsurfing, ham radio (X75M1K).
WORK EXPERIENCE: Since 1981 he has been working as engineer
of NPO Energia's PDB. He was engaged in developing cosmonauts
flight manuals, the proposals for operator's data imaging
on panels and displays of the Mir orbital complex; updating
flight documentation of the Salyut-7 station. In January
1984 he was selected by the test results as a candidate
for the NPO Energia's cosmonauts team.
On September 2, 1985 he was taken on the staff of NPO Energia
cosmonauts by the State Interdepartmental Committee’s resolution.
On November 10, 1985 he was appointed a candidate for test-cosmonauts
of NPO Energia's cosmonauts team by the Order of the Minister
for General Machine Building.
On February 11, 1987 he was appointed test-cosmonaut of
NPO Energia's cosmonauts team.
Since April 7, 1992 he has been instructor - test-cosmonaut,
NPO Energia Deputy Head of Department.
He was employed at Mission Control Center (MCC), at first
as a radiogram developer, then as a specialist in crew
actions and flight documentation throughout several long-duration
expeditions. After loss of communication with the Salyuit
station in February 1985 he was involved in the team developing
and testing the procedure to fly to the uncontrollable
station. Before the prime crew (Dzhanibekov - Savinykh)
trainings started, he had tested various options of the
procedures as part of the support crew (Viktorenko - Krikalev).
As part of his work in the Department Krikalev took part
in cosmonauts training at CTC and Baikonur. After joining
the cosmonauts team he kept on working in the same Department
as Team Lead and then as Deputy Head of Department. During
1985-1986 he took the course of basic space training at
CTC after Y.A. Gagarin. In 1986 he was qualified as test-cosmonaut
by the Interdepartmental Qualification Committee’s solution.
In 1986-1988 he took part in the cosmonauts team training
under the Buran Program.
On March 22, 1988 as member of the crew (4th crew with
Schukin) he replaced A. Kaleri discharged from the training
because of the health problems, in the prime crew of the
During March 22, 1988 through November 11, 1988 he received
training as the Soyuz TM-7 prime crew flight engineer under
the Prime Crew-4/Aragats Program at the Mir OS along with
A. Volkov and Jean Loup - Chretien (France).
He got training as the main tester for the first test of
Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit (EMU).
Together with A. Volkov he made arrangements for the new
Kvant-2 module acceptance and initial operational use.
Under the Flight Program they received training in space
His pioneer flight took place from November 26, 1988 to
April 27, 1989. He flew as a flight engineer onboard the
Soyuz-TM-7 space vehicle and Mir OS under the Prime Crew-4/Aragats
Program. The flight duration was 151 days 11 hours 08 minutes
In 1990 he got training as a flight engineer of the Soyuz
TM-11 backup crew under the Prime Crew-8 Program and the
Joint Soviet-Japanese flight onboard the Mir OS together
with A. Artsebarsky and R. Kikuti (Japan).
From December 1990 through April 1991 he received training
as a flight engineer of the Soyuz TM-12 prime crew under
the Prime Crew-9 Program onboard the Mir OS along with
A. Artsebarsky and H. Sharman (Great Britain).
From May 18, 1991 through March 25, 1992 he took part in
the second space flight as the Soyuz TM-12 and Mir OS flight
engineer under the Prime Crew-9 and Prime Crew-10 Programs.
During the flight he performed 7 space walks with a total
duration of 36 hours 29 min. The flight duration was 311
days 20 hours 00 minutes 54 seconds.
From November 1, 1992 through January, 1994 he got training
at L. Johnson Space Center (NASA) as a flight expert of
crew No 4 carried by the Discovery Orbiter under STS-60
Program. He completed the training and was certified to
operate the Shuttle manipulator (for grappling free-flying
satellite, including handling the satellite with loss of
From February 3 through February 11, 1994 he took part
in the third space flight as an STS-60 crewmember onboard
the Discovery Orbiter in the capacity crew-4 flight specialist.
The flight duration was 8 days 07 hours 09 minutes 22 seconds.
From April 1994 through January 1995 he got training at
L. Johnson Space Center as a backup cosmonaut of V. Titov,
flight specialist of the Discovery crew-4 under STS-63
Program. Concurrently with the trainings as a backup crewmember
under STS-63, he along with NASA Astronauts Office got
down to the work related to a new international station.
After studying the US EVA spacesuit and passing the corresponding
test Krikalev with the spacesuit donned worked in neutral
buoyancy laboratory on developing the procedures to assemble
the future station in space. Prior to flight he was involved
in MCC-H operations assisting in the cooperation with two
On February 3, 1995 he was a backup specialist of the Discovery
Orbiter flight 4 under STS-63. During the flight he was
appointed Lead of the 1st Consultative Team (the group
of experts from MCC intended to work at MCC-H). In the
most critical flight phases he worked in the main operations
management room assisting in establishing communication
between the two MCCs and two crews. He performed similar
services during flight STS-71, 74 and 76. As a representative
of the Lead Operational Control Team he participated in
the RSA/NASA talks on the work breakdown.
Since January 1996 he was appointed the Prime Crew Flight
Engineer of the of the first Expedition to the International
Space Station (ISS-1). The launch was scheduled for May
1998. From October 1996 he got training together with Yu.
Gidzenko and W. Shepherd (USA) as a Flight Engineer of
the ISS-1 prime crew.
In July 30, 1998 he was assigned to the Endeavour Orbiter
crew under STS-88 Program.
From September 17 through November 1998 he received training
at L. Johnson Space Center (USA) as a crewmember under
From December 2 through December 14, 1998 he performed
the fourth space flight as a specialist of the Endeavour
flight 4 under STS-88 Program.
It was the pioneer manned flight under the International
Space Station Assembly Program. During the flight toward
the Zarya Functional Cargo Block the US NODE 1/Unity Module
was docked. He and the Shuttle Commander R. Cabana were
the first to open the hatches of the ISS. He took part
in the activities onboard the ISS. The flight duration
was 11 days 19 hours 17 minutes 55 seconds.
From 1999 till October 2000 Krikalev proceeded with his
training as a Flight Engineer of the ISS-1 prime crew along
with Yu. Gidzenko and W. Shepherd (USA).
From October 31, 2000 through March 21, 2001 Krikalev performed
his fifth space flight under the ISS (ISS-1) first Prime
Crew Program as the ISS Pilot, Commander of the Soyuz TM-31
spacecraft and specialist of the Discovery flight 3 under
STS-102 in the recovery stage. The ISS-1 crew reactivated
Service Module Zvezda and Functional Cargo Block Zarya,
received three Shuttle Orbiters, whose crews docked to
the station Solar Array R6 Module and Destiny Laboratory
Module. The Destiny and Unity Modules were reactivated,
two Progress M/M1 cargo vehicles and Leonardo cargo module
were received and unloaded, scientific investigations under
the Russian and American Programs were initiated. The station
was handed over to the Expedition-2 Prime Crew. The flight
duration was 140 days 23 hours 38 minutes 55 seconds. Currently
he is in the process of preparation for the next space
flight as the Commander of ISS-11 Prime Crew.
SPORTING RECORDS: A first-grade swimmer; Candidate for
all around combined tournament Master of Sport (at Leningrad
Championship in 1979).
From 1977 he went in for aerobatic flying. During 1980-1981
he was a member of Leningrad Team on aerobatic flying.
In 1981 he was awarded the title of the USSR Master of
Sports on aerobatic flying.
From 1982 he went in for aerobatic flying in the Central
Aeroclub after V.P. Chkalov in Moscow.
In 1982 he took part in the USSR Championship on behalf
of the Central Aeroclub team and was a candidate for the
USSR combined team on aerobatic flying.
In 1983 he was recognized as an Overall Champion of Moscow
by aerobatic flying. In the Spartakiade finals of the USSR
Nations and the USSR Championship he stood up for the RS
FSR team, where he won the third place in the team records
and the 8th place as a personal record.
In 1985 he took
part in the Socialist Countries Campionship on aerobatic
flying as a member of the USSR 2nd Team and was a member
of the Russian national team on aerobatic flying by gliders.
He became a Silver Prize winner in aerobatic flying exercises.
In 1986 he won the USSR Championship and the European Championship
in the team records, as well as the champion by the exercises.
Also he was awarded the title of the International Class
Master of Sports.
In 1997 he won the World Championship and the 1st Aerobatic
Flying Games in the team records. Also he became a Silver
Prize winner in personal record.
He flew aircraft Yak-18A, Yak-52, Yak-5, Yak-55M, Su-26,
He performed familiarization flights with instructor by
MIG-21, MIG-25 and TU-134.
He was granted the second pilot license to fly aircraft
T-38 (USA) and had logged more than 140 hours by this aircraft.
Based on materials from Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center
and Handbook 'Soviet and Russian Cosmonauts. 1960-2000'.