Sergei Konstantinovich KRIKALEV
Flight Engineer, Cosmonaut-Researcher,
S.P. Korolev Rocket&Space Corporation Energia, Russia
DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH: August 27, 1958,
Leningrad. Farther: Konstantin Sergeevich Krikalev, born
in 1932, lives in St. Petersburg. Mother: Nadezhda Ivanovna
Krikaleva, born in 1931, lives in St. Petersdurg.
EDUCATION: In 1981 he graduated from the
Leningrad Mechanical Institute (Voyenmekh), the machine
building department specializing in the Flight Vehicle Design
and Manufacturing; got the honours diploma in Mechanical
MARITAL STATUS: Married.
Wife: Yelena Yuryevna Terekhina born in 1956, works as engineer
at RSC Energia.
Daughter: Olga Sergeevna Krikaleva, born in 1990, goes to
AWARD AND RANKS: Hero of the Soviet Union,
Hero of the Russian Federation, the USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut.
Awards: Gold Star Medal of the Hero of the Soviet Union;
Order of Lenin; Gold Star Medal of the Hero of the Russian
Federation; Order of Friendship of the Peoples. Awards from
foreign countries: officer of the Legion of Honour (France),
the NASA Space Flight Medal; the NASA Distinguished Service
Medal. Awards of scientific and social organizations: Order
of Eagle First Class (Association of the Russian Manufacturers).
HOBBIES: Aerobatic flying, swimming, scuba
diving, Alpine skiing, tennis, windsurfing, ham radio (X75M1K).
WORK EXPERIENCE: Since 1981 he has been working
as engineer of NPO Energia's PDB. He was engaged in developing
cosmonauts flight manuals, the proposals for operator's
data imaging on panels and displays of the Mir orbital complex;
updating flight documentation of the Salyut-7 station. In
January 1984 he was selected by the test results as a candidate
for the NPO Energia's cosmonauts team.
On September 2, 1985 he was taken on the staff of NPO Energia
cosmonauts by the SIAC resolution.
On November 10, 1985 he was appointed a candidate for test-cosmonauts
of NPO Energia's cosmonauts team by the Order No 384 of
On February 1987 he was appointed test-cosmonaut of NPO
Energia's cosmonauts team.
Since April 7, 1992 he has been instructor - test-cosmonaut,
NPO Energia Deputy Head of Department.
He was employed at Mission Control Center (MCC), at first
as a radiogram developer, then as a specialist in crew actions
and flight documentation throughout several long-duration
expeditions. After loss of communication with the Salynit
station in February 1985 he was involved in the team developing
and testing the procedure to fly to the uncontrollable station.
Before the prime crew (Dzhanibekov - Savinykh) trainings
started, he had tested various options of the procedures
as part of the support crew (Viktorenko - Krikalev).
As part of his work in the Department Krikalev took part
in cosmonauts training at CTC and Baikonur. After joining
the cosmonauts team he kept on working in the same Department
as Team Lead and then as Deputy Head of Department. During
1985-1986 he took the course of basic space training at
CTC after Y.A. Gagarin. In 1986 he was qualified as test-cosmonaut
by the IAQC solution.
In 1986-1988 he took part in the cosmonauts team training
under the Buran Program.
On March 22, 1988 as member of the crew (4th crew with Schukin)
he replaced A. Kaleri discharged from the training because
of the health problems, in the prime crew of the Soyuz TM-7.
During March 22, 1988 through November 11, 1988 he received
training as the Soyuz TM-7 prime crew flight engineer under
the Prime Crew-4/Aragats Program at the Mir OS along with
A. Volkov and Jean Loup - Chretien (France).
He got training as the main tester for the first test of
Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit.
Together with A. Volkov he made arrangements for the new
Kvant-2 module acceptance and initial operational use. Under
the Flight Program they received training in space walks.
His pioneer flight took place from November 26, 1988 to
April 27, 1989. He flew as a flight engineer onboard the
Soyuz-TM-7 space vehicle and Mir OS under the Prime Crew-4/Aragats
Program. The flight duration was 151 days. In 1990 he got
training as a flight engineer of the Soyuz TM-11 backup
crew under the Prime Crew-8 Program and the Joint Soviet-Japanese
flight onboard the Mir OS together with A. Artsebarsky and
R. Kikuti (Japan).
From December, 1990 through April, 1991 he received training
as a flight engineer of the Soyuz TM-12 prime crew under
the Prime Crew-9 Program onboard the Mir OS along with A.
Artsebarsky and H. Sharman (Great Britain).
From May 18, 1991 throught March 25, 1992 he took part in
the second space flight with a duration of 312 days as the
Soyuz TM-12 and Mir OS flight engineer under the Prime Crew-9
and Prime Crew-10 Programs. During the flight he performed
7 space walks with a total duration of 36 hours 29 min.
From November 1, 1992 through January, 1994 he got training
at JSC as a flight expert of crew No 4 carried by the Discovery
Orbiter under STS-60 Program. He completed the training
and was certified to operate the Shuttle manipulator (for
grappling free-flying satellite, including handling the
satellite with loss of orientation).
From March 3, 1994 to February 11, 1994 he took part in
the third space flight as an STS-60 crewmember onboard the
Discovery Orbiter in the capacity of flight specialist for
an 8-day period.
From April 1994 through January 1995 he got training at
Johnson Space Center as a backup cosmonaut of Titov, flight
specialist of the Discovery crew-4 under STS-63 Program.
Concurrently with the trainings as a backup crewmember under
STS-63, he along with NASA Astronauts Office got down to
the work related to a new international station. After studying
the US EVA spacesuit and passing the corresponding test
Krikalev with the spacesuit donned worked in neutral buoyancy
laboratory on developing the procedures to assemble the
future station in space. Prior to flight he was involved
in MCC-H operations assisting in the cooperation with two
On February 3, 1995 he was a backup specialist of the Discovery
Orbiter flight 4 under STS-63. During the flight he was
appointed Lead of the 1st Consultative Team (the group of
experts from MCC intended to work at MCC-H). In the most
critical flight phases he worked in the main operations
management room assisting in establishing communication
between the two MCCs and two crews. He performed similar
services during flight STS-71, 74 and 76. As a representative
of the Lead Operational Control Team he participated in
the RSA/NASA talks on the work breakdown.
Since January 1996 he was appointed Flight Engineer of the
International Space Station (ISS-1) prime crew. The launch
was scheduled for May 1998. From October 1996 he got training
together with Yu. Gidzenko and W. Shephard (USA) as a Flight
Engineer of the ISS-1 prime crew.
In July 30, 1998 he was assigned to the Endeavour Orbiter
crew under STS-88 Program.
From September 17 through November 1998 he received training
at Johnson Space Center (USA) as a crewmember under STS-88.
From December 2 through December 14, 1998 he performed the
fourth space flight with a 12-day duration as a specialist
of the Endeavour flight 4 under STS-88 Program.
It was the pioneer manned flight under the International
Space Station Assembly Program. During the flight toward
the Zarya Functional Cargo Block the US NODE 1/Unity Module
was docked. Astronauts and the cosmonaut were the first
to open the hatches of a new station.
In 1999 Krikalev proceeded with his training as a Flight
Engineer of the ISS-1 prime crew along with Yu. Gidzenko
and W. Shephard (USA).
SPORTING RECORDS: A first-grade swimmer;
Candidate for all around combined tournament Master of Sport
(at Leningrad Championship in 1979).
From 1977 he went in for aerobatic flying. During 1980-1981
he was a member of Leningrad Team on aerobatic flying.
In 1981 he was awarded the title of the USSR Master of Sports
on aerobatic flying. He flew aircraft Yak-18A, Yak-50, Yak-52,
Yak-55, Yak-55M, Su-26, Su-29 (under space training program
relative to L-39, MIG-21, MIG-25, Tu-134).
From 1982 he went in for aerobatic flying in the Cetral
Aeroclub after V.P. Chkalov in Moscow.
In 1982 he took part in the USS Championship on behalf of
the Central Aeroclub team.
In 1983 he was recognized as an Overall Champion of Moscow
by aerobatic flying. In the Spartakiade finals of the USSR
Nations and the USSR Championship he stood up for the RS
FSR team, where he won the third place in the team records
and the 8th place as a personal record.
In October 1982 he became a candidate for the USSR Team
on aerobatic flying.
In 1985 he took part in the Socialist Countries Campionship
on aerobatic flying as a member of the USSR 2nd Team.
In 1986 he won the USSR Championship in the team records
(the 2nd team of Russia).
In 1995 he became a member of the Russian combined team
on sail-plane aerobatic flying.
In 1995 he participated in the World Championship (Silver
Prize winner in aerobatic flying exercises).
In 1996 he was awarded the title International Class Master
In 1996 he won the European Championship in the team records
(champion by aerobatic flying exercises (a new program).
In 1997 he won the World Championship and the 1st Aerobatic
Flying Games in the team records. He is a silver prize-winner
in a personal record.