ISS-65 mission


ISS crew:

Commander -
Akihiko Hoshide

Flight engineers:
leg Novitskiy
Petr Dubrov
Mark Vande Hei
Robert Shane Kimbrough
Megan McArthur
Tomas Pesquet



Amazing Chertok

March 2, 2021

March 1 saw the 109th anniversary of an outstanding scientist, one of the founders of the theory and practice of the missiles control systems development, a father of a school of science, academician of the Russian academy of sciences, doctor of engineering science, professor Boris Yevseevich Chertok. He ranks equally with other pioneers of space: academicians S.P.Korolev, V.P. Glushko, V.P. Mishin, B.V. Raushenbakh and others. He made a significant contribution to the development of our company and the entire space industry.

As early as in the days of the Great Patriotic War, Boris Chertok was working on the automatic controls for aircraft armaments and ignition of liquid-propellant rocket engines. He developed a control system and electrical ignition for the liquid-propellant engine, which was used in the first flight of the rocket plane BI-1 designed by Bolkhovitinov, Isaev, Bereznyak, which was carried out by captain Bakhchvandzhi in 1942.

In 1945, as a member of a special commission, B.Y.Chertok was sent to Germany to supervise a team of Soviet specialists studying hardware. That same year, together with A.M.Isaev, he set up in Thuringia in the Soviet zone of occupation the joint Soviet-German rocket institute Rabe, which was conducting studies into long-range ballistic missile control technology. Established in 1946 on the basis of this institute was a new institute Nordhausen, appointed to the position of the chief engineer of which was S.P. Korolev.

In August 1946 Chertok was transferred the post of the deputy chief engineer and the head of the control systems department at NII-88. In 1950 he was appointed to the post of deputy head of department, and in 1951 to the position of the head of control systems department of OKB-1, the chief designer of which was S.P. Korolev.

From 1957 to 1963 he was deputy chief designer at OKB-1. In 1958 he was awarded the academic degree of the Doctor of Engineering Science. In 1963 he was appointed to the posts of deputy head of the enterprise for science and the head of the branch office No.1, which was engaged in the development of spacecraft and control systems. From 1966 B.E. Chertok was the deputy chief designer and the head of a complex of TsKBEM of the Ministry of General Machine-building. In 1974 Boris Chertok was deputy general designer of NPO Energia for control systems. He worked in that job till 1992. But even when he was 80 he never though about retiring. He lived a long life, and he was just a few months away from his 100th anniversary when he died. To the very last day his life was dedicated to work. Boris Chertok was active as a chief science consultant of the general designer of the Corporation, made speeches, met with the young people.

All his scientific and engineering work was related to the development of control systems for missiles and spacecraft. He established a school of thought which to this day determines the areas of research and the level of our countrys manned spaceflight technology.

Developed with his participation were spacecraft attitude control and navigation systems using the principle of continuously adjusting gyroscopic devices by stars. For intercontinental missiles, launch vehicles and space systems, he developed principles for designing autonomous instruments, devices and systems as a single hierarchically structured large system.

Fundamental works of academician Chertok deal with the development of control and power supply systems for unmanned and manned spacecraft. E was in charge of developing control systems for manned spacecraft Vostok, Voskhod, Molniya-1 communications satellite, lunar probes, first interplanetary probes, spacecraft that carried out automatic docking in space and others.

Research and design activities of the team headed by B.E.Chertok laid the foundation for a whole new discipline in space sciences the science of motion control and navigation systems for manned spacecraft and methods of designing large control systems for space complexes. Development by B.E.Chertok of the ideas of systems approach, the use of advanced computer technology and integrated simulations in the course of ground testing made it possible to solve fundamental problems in development of spacecraft Soyuz, Soyuz T, Progress, long-term orbital stations of Salyut series, Energia-Buran system.

The outstanding achievement of our countrys space science was the establishment of the continuously operated expandable orbital complex Mir. The strap-down motion control and navigation, onboard equipment control and power supply systems developed for this complex made extensive use of onboard computers based on state of the art microelectronics. The high precision of attitude control and stabilization, the efficiency that was due to the use of control moment gyros, and reliability, enabled conducting research for astrophysics and national economy that was of paramount importance.

For more than half a century Boris Chertok was involved in teaching, for many years he was the chairman of the dissertation committee examining candidates of science theses, a member of the dissertation committee examining doctor of science theses at RSC Energia, a member of the council of experts for the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles under the aegis of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. In 1968 he was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences by the Mechanics and Control Processes Branch, in 2000 he was elected a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1990 he was elected a full member of the International Academy of Astronautics. B.E.Chertok authored and co-authored more than 200 scientific works, including monographs, and a unique series of books Rockets and People.

Boris Chertok was awarded the title of the Hero of Socialist Labor (for development of rocket hardware and ensuring the success of Y.A.Gagarin's mission). He was a recipient of the Lenin Prize (for participation in the development of the first Earths artificial satellites, 1957), and of the USSR State Prize (for participation in the space project Soyuz-Apollo, 1976). He was awarded two orders of Lenin (1956, 1961), orders of the October Revolution (1971), of the Red Banner of Labor (1975), of the Red Star (1945), For Services to the Motherland, Class 4 (1996), and many medals, including For Defense of Moscow. For his work in the field of spacecraft control systems he was awarded the B.N. Petrov Gold Medal from the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Gold Medal from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).





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