ISS-65 mission


ISS crew:

Commander -
Akihiko Hoshide

Flight engineers:
leg Novitskiy
Petr Dubrov
Mark Vande Hei
Robert Shane Kimbrough
Megan McArthur
Tomas Pesquet



55th anniversary of the launch of biological research satellite Kosmos-110

February 22, 2021

On February 22, 1966, a Voskhod launch vehicle was launched from Baikonur launch site carrying an unmanned scientific research spacecraft Kosmos-110 under a development program for advanced life support technologies of future manned missions. As a result of the 22-day test mission, the dogs Veterok and Ugolek set a world flight endurance record for living things in space.

Since 1965, the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) conducted studies to evaluate the prospects for long-duration space missions both in near-Earth orbit and beyond. A practical part of these studies consisted in a flight experiment involving dogs onboard a manned spacecraft in the area of the Earth radiation belts, in an orbit with the apogee of 900 km. Veterok and Ugolek shared the spacecraft cabin with fruit fly maggots, plant seeds, yeast cultures, blood serum samples, protein specimens and lysogenic bacteria of intestinal bacteria. The main objective of the scientific mission was to study the functioning of biological organisms under a long exposure to zero gravity and increased radiation, especially the operation of heart and circulatory system. The mission also included a series of physical studies to determine the methods of protecting living things against space radiation. Used as a space lab was a modified spacecraft 3KV No.5, developed by specialists of OKB-1 (now known as RSC Energia) and derived from the worlds first multi-seater manned spacecraft Voskhod. It was equipped with cabins housing test animals, automatic equipment for feeding, ventilation, thermal control and monitoring medical parameters with downlinking of the data via telemetry radio links.

On March 17, 1966, the descent vehicle of Kosmos-110 successfully returned to Earth, and on the same day its passengers were delivered to IBMP. The long stay in the radiation hazardous area had a negative effect on dogs health and well-being. But after one month of medical rehabilitation measures, Veterok and Ugolek fully recovered, and later produced healthy offspring. Their space endurance record of 22 days stood till 1971, when the crew of Soyuz-11 carried out a 24-day program of the first manned mission onboard long-duration orbital station Salyut.




July 21, 2021
LV Proton-M with MLM Nauka is launched
June 30, 2021
LV Soyuz-2.1a with SC Progress MS-17 is launched



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