ISS-65 mission


ISS crew:

Commander -
Akihiko Hoshide

Flight engineers:
Оleg Novitskiy
Petr Dubrov
Mark Vande Hei
Robert Shane Kimbrough
Megan McArthur
Tomas Pesquet


Планета Королёва


RSC Energia: 52 years of flight to the “Russian planet”

November 16, 2017

On November 16, 1965 automatic interplanetary station (AIS) Venera-3 created at OKB-1 (now RSC Energia) was launched from Baikonur by the Molniya launch vehicle. It was destined to be the first in the world spacecraft that performed a flight from Earth to another planet.

On March 1, 1966 Venera-3 reached the Venusian surface having passed a distance of about 350 M km. The station mass was 960 kg. During the flight 63 communication sessions were held and the trajectory correction was made. AIS reached the Venusian surface east of the Mead crater. The descent capsule of the station was of a spherical shape 900 mm in diameter and had a heat-resistant coating and a parachute. It was thoroughly sterilized to prevent biological contamination of Venus. Inside the capsule there were a radio system, scientific equipment, power sources and pennants with the national emblem of the USSR. Because of a number of reasons the station failed to transmit data on the planet itself but important scientific data on space and planetary space was obtained. A large volume of trajectory measurements was the most valuable base for study of superlong-range communication problems and interplanetary transfers.

Studies of Venus began on the initiative of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev with launch on February 4, 1961 of Venera-1 – the first in the history of mankind spacecraft designed to study other planets. Korolev was aware that such flights would allow to obtain more accurate physical characteristics of interplanetary space and such planets as Mars and Venus. It was necessary for the development of interplanetary manned spacecraft.

In the USSR the great success in studying Venus using AIS was achieved, that is why the planet was called the Russian planet.




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