ISS-65 mission


ISS crew:

Commander -
Akihiko Hoshide

Flight engineers:
leg Novitskiy
Petr Dubrov
Mark Vande Hei
Robert Shane Kimbrough
Megan McArthur
Tomas Pesquet



April 19, 2011.
S.P. Korolev RSC Energia,
Korolev, Moscow Region

The book "Moon is the step forward in the Solar system exploration"

The book "Moon is the step forward in the Solar system exploration" came out. It is devoted to the 50th anniversary of the pioneer space flight performed by the Earth planet representative, our compatriot Yu.A. Gagarin. Scientific editors are RAS academician V.P. Legostaev and RAS corresponding member V.A. Lopota.

The book consists of the six chapters.

The first chapter summarizes multiple accumulated data on the Moon as a celestial body. Hypotheses are framed concerning the Moon origin, its inner and surface composition, including minerals, available atmosphere and magnetic field anomalies, human life-sustaining environment on its surface. The possibilities are investigated of conducting unique experiments; the objectives of studying the Moon surface and inner structure and near-lunar surface, search and analysis of minerals suitable for use as well as looking into the Universe basic problems are set.

The second chapter looks back briefly on the history of the Moon research conducted by unmanned spacecraft, the US astronauts expeditions with Lunar landing under the Apollo programs, the USSR plans for similar expeditions. The second part of the chapter gives a current outlook for the Moon development purposes and objectives.

The third chapter puts forward potential phases of the Moon development, including investigations to be conducted by spacecraft, building unmanned lunar outpost, construction and assembly by increments of lunar manned base, building experimental infrastructure and further industrial infrastructure with gradual changing of the lunar base to self-sustained operation. Up-to-date manned flight profiles are under discussion.

The fourth chapter addresses current understanding of Lunar infrastructure at different stages of its development. It reviews content and assembly by increments of the Lunar manned base, life support facilities, working environment on its surface, Lunar space suits. Consideration is given to lunar bases solar and nuclear power plants; nuclear heat-and-power stations of mining-processing complexes; technologies for lunar soil processing to extract oxygen, metals, propellant components. Lunar rovers and other lunar infrastructure supporting equipment are described. Lunar settlement content and architecture are given. A possibility of building space port in near-lunar space is looked at.

The five chapter addresses external layouts of lunar transportation systems at the first and further phases. Cargo traffic is evaluated for lunar base building and servicing; launch vehicle and upper stage alternatives are reviewed. For the first phase with the propellant produced on the Earth it is proposed to use expendable manned cargo vehicles, take-off-and-landing and landing sites; reusable orbital nuclear electric rocket transfer vehicle. Consideration is given to economic-and-engineering efficiency of this transportation system. With a possibility to manufacture propellants on the Moon, it is proposed to build transshipment base as lunar orbital station, reusable space vehicles and take-off-and-landing sites. For a longer-term perspective, transportation system components are examined, which are based upon wireless power transmission and electromagnetic accelerators.

The sixth chapter deals with the problems of the Earth power supply from space. It focuses on the importance of cosmonautics, advanced space technologies for potential averting of energy and ecological crises on the Earth. Measures are proposed to monitor the Earth's climate by means of space technologies, including those used to manufacture different materials extracted from lunar soil on the Moon.

Scientists and specialists from RSC Energia, primary enterprises of rocket and space industry (TsNIIMash, Center after M.V. Keldysh, NPO after S.A. Lavochkin, General Machinebuilding DB after V.P. Barmin) and RAS prime institutes (GEOKhI, GAISh, IKI) contributed to writing the book.

Edition issued is 2000 copies; the volume is 584 pages, including 44 Tables, 188 Pictures.



October 5, 2021
The launch of LV Soyuz-2.1a with SC Soyuz MS-19 is planned
July 21, 2021
LV Proton-M with MLM Nauka is launched



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