Soyuz TMA Spacecraft Basic Modifications
The Soyuz TMA manned transport spacecraft is a modification
of Soyuz TM spacecraft distinguished for a high reliability
and safety of flight for the crew which is proven by all
the launches of the spacecraft implemented in the period
of years 1986 -2002 for the purposes of servicing orbital
The basic modifications of the Soyuz TM spacecraft are connected
with implementation of requirements for enlargement of crew
anthropometric parameter range up to the values acceptable
for the American astronaut contingent, and with increase
of crew protection level from shock loads by decreasing
landing speeds and improving shock-absorption of its chairs.
To denote the modification of this spacecraft in design
and general technical documentation, the name "Soyuz
TMA" (anthropometric) was adopted.
For implementation of the above requirements on the baseline
Soyuz TM spacecraft the following basic modifications in
layout, design and onboard systems of the descent module
(DM) were made without increase of its dimensions:
- Three newly developed long Kazbek-UM amortization
chairs with new four-mode dampers that provide chair
adjustment, depending on the astronaut mass.
- A re-arrangement of equipment was made in the
areas above and below DM chairs which allows one
to accommodate longer chairs and astronauts with
increased anthropometry and to enlarge the passage
area through the access hatch. In particular, a
new control panel decreased in height, a new cooling-drying
assembly, data storage system and other new or modified
systems are installed.
- On the DM primary structure in the area of right
and left chair footrests the cavities were stamped
about 30mm deep that allowed big cosmonauts and
their long chairs to be accommodated. Correspondingly,
the primary structure and the routing of pipes and
cables were changed.
- A minimum of modification was made to elements
of DM primary structure, instrument frame and brackets.
The crew cabin was "cleared" as far as
possible from projecting elements - one moved them
to more convenient places, remade a valves unit
of the spacesuit oxygen supply system.
- Modifications of a landing equipment set were
- two (of 6 single-mode) soft landing engines
(SLE) were replaced with two new three-mode engines
- for reduction of measurement errors the Kaktus-1V
gamma-altimeter was replaced with a new Kaktus-2V
In addition to the above changes, separate systems and
assemblies were modified on the Soyuz TMA spacecraft. The
modifications are mainly connected with transfer to new
components and introduction of design improvements.
Soyuz TMA descent module layout
with indication of modified elements
Anthropometric parameters of Soyuz TM
and Soyuz TMA spacecraft
1. Cosmonaut (astronaut) height, cm
- maximum, in the standing position
- minimum, in the standing position
- maximum, in the sitting position
2. Cosmonaut (astronaut) chest circumference, cm
3. Cosmonaut (astronaut) mass, kg
| 4. Maximum foot length, cm