Manned Transport Spacecraft Soyuz S

Purpose, objective of the new-series spacecraft Soyuz MS are identical to as those of the base spacecraft.

Key Performance of Spacecraft Soyuz S

Name of performance,
unit of measurement
Value Remarks
Spacecraft mass, kg
up to 7220
Descent module mass, kg
~ 2900
Crew, persons
Orbit parameters
  • inclination, deg
  • altitude, km
    • of launch
    • at spacecraft docking
    • at spacecraft re-entry


up to 425
up to 460

*) Perigee/apogee
Geometrical characteristics of the spacecraft, mm
  • body length
  • maximal diameter
  • diameter of living compartments
  • solar array span


Estimated payload mass, kg
  • ascent
  • descent


With 3-person crew
On-orbit life*, days
*) including the free flight duration
Landing velocity, m/s
  • using the main parachute system
    nominal velocity/after SLE firing
  • using the backup parachute system
    nominal velocity/after SLE firing



Launch Vehicle
Soyuz FG

Major Upgrades of Spacecraft Soyuz S

Soyuz MS vehicle Spacecraft Soyuz TMA-M systems and structures were upgraded in order to enhance its technical and operational characteristics by replacing the obsolete onboard systems, that eventually increased the fault tolerance, reliability and safety.

The upgrade of the systems and structures currently implemented on Soyuz MS, was initiated on spacecraft Soyuz TMA-M, beginning with spacecraft:

  • Soyuz TMA-03M: an additional fifth storage battery pack was installed, the area of photoelectric converters (FEC) was increased, FECs with increased efficiency were used, a modernized data recording system SZI-M was introduced;
  • Soyuz TMA-04M: an additional micro meteoroid protection was installed on the habitable compartment; SMI-4 light was replaced with a LED headlight (SFOK), the communication and direction measurement system Rassvet-M was replaced with the upgraded system Rassvet-3BM, which allows to determine the coordinates of the DM landing site from the GLONASS/GPS global positioning receiver and transmit them to the Search and Rescue Team (SRT) and MCC using the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system;
  • Soyuz TMA-08M: redundant motors of the docking mechanism electric actuators and interface pressurization mechanism were incorporated into the docking assembly.

The new-modification Soyuz MS was developed as a result of Soyuz TMA-M radical upgrade. In addition to the above modifications the following systems and equipment were implemented on Soyuz MS:

  • a single unified command and telemetry system instead of the onboard command radio system Kvant-V. The new command radio link ensures signal reception via relay satellites Luch-5, due to which the radio coverage zone of spacecraft considerably increases - up to 70% of the orbit duration;
  • GLONASS/GPS satellite navigation equipment was incorporated in GC&NS, orbit radio monitoring equipment was excluded;
  • modern on-board radio rendezvous and docking system Kurs-NA. As compared to the earlier version Kurs-A the system improved mass-dimensional characteristics and allows to exclude one type of radio antennas from the spacecraft equipment;
  • digital video signal transmitter transmitting signals to Klest-M television system, that allows to exchange digital data between the spacecraft and the station via the radio link;
  • the new layout of the berthing and attitude control thrusters was implemented (this ensures the execution of the flight program if one berthing and attitude control thruster or one propellant manifold fails);
  • the new digital control unit for the backup loop developed by RSC Energia, upgraded unit of BDUS-3A angular velocity sensors was also included in the onboard equipment to replace the equipment to be discontinued;
  • due to the use of the new ground and onboard radio engineering systems, it became possible to use modern data transmission protocols resulting in improved stability of the spacecraft control system operation.

ISS Crew

Shannon Walker WALKER

leg Novitskiy Novitskiy

Petr Dubrov Dubrov

Mark Vande Hei Vande Hei

Michael Hopkins Hopkins

Victor Glover Glover

Soichi Noguchi Noguchi