Rocket Space Complexes
Successful launches of the first artificial Earth's satellites
showed that spacecraft were able to remain functional in
space environment for long periods of time, however, to
make interplanetary missions feasible would require a launch
vehicle capable of inserting into the artificial Earth's
satellite orbit not only a spacecraft, but also an upper
stage to enable its start from the near-Earth orbit and
generate an escape velocity (beyond 11.2 km/s).
The outlook for developing a multi-stage launch vehicle
based on rocket R-7 offered new possibilities for exploring
the Moon and the nearest planets of the Solar System - Venus
The Government Decree on "Space Exploration Plans" of June
4, 1960 enacted to develop a four-stage launch vehicle for
missions to Mars and Venus.
The Government Decree of June 23, 1960 "On the Development
of Powerful Launch vehicles, Satellites, Spacecraft, and
Space Exploration in 1960-1967" has been enacted to develop
Launch vehicle Energia being developed as a part of the
Energia-Buran Reusable Space System is a versatile, heavy-lift
launch vehicle capable to deliver large payloads up to 100
t attached to the exterior to orbits and near-Earth space.