Rocket Space Complexes

Launch Vehicle Vostok

Successful launches of the first artificial Earth's satellites showed that spacecraft were able to remain functional in space environment for long periods of time, however, to make interplanetary missions feasible would require a launch vehicle capable of inserting into the artificial Earth's satellite orbit not only a spacecraft, but also an upper stage to enable its start from the near-Earth orbit and generate an escape velocity (beyond 11.2 km/s).

Launch Vehicle Molniya

The outlook for developing a multi-stage launch vehicle based on rocket R-7 offered new possibilities for exploring the Moon and the nearest planets of the Solar System - Venus and Mars.
The Government Decree on "Space Exploration Plans" of June 4, 1960 enacted to develop a four-stage launch vehicle for missions to Mars and Venus.

Complex N1-L3

The Government Decree of June 23, 1960 "On the Development of Powerful Launch vehicles, Satellites, Spacecraft, and Space Exploration in 1960-1967" has been enacted to develop complex N1-L3.

Launch Vehicle Energia

Launch vehicle Energia being developed as a part of the Energia-Buran Reusable Space System is a versatile, heavy-lift launch vehicle capable to deliver large payloads up to 100 t attached to the exterior to orbits and near-Earth space.

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