Russian

Launch vehicle Energia

Launch Complex


Considering the system reusability, great emphasis was placed on pre-launch processing facilities at both launch sites. To implement the Energia-Buran program, it was decided to develop a versatile complex "Stand-Start", modify and re-equip the launch site previously developed under the N1-L3 program, develop an Orbiter launch complex, and to foresee backup runways to be used for the Orbiter unplanned landing. In addition, to deliver and assemble the Energia-Buran system, hoisting-transportation devices have been developed, manufactured, and mounted, transportation roads have been improved and newly build.

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