Russian

Launch vehicle Energia

Problems



Re-loading of
the Energia-Buran System
to the transporter-erector

Transportation
of the Energia-Buran Space System
to the launch site for the first launch.

LV Energia at the launch site

When developing the LV designed radically different from previous rockets, many problems associated with organizational aspects, research and engineering arose. Among problems solved while developing the Energia-Buran Reusable Space System were:

  • working out of LV design to serve as a basis for the development of other launch vehicles differing not only in their liftoff capabilities, but also in types of payloads including reusable orbiters;
  • development of a large oxygen-hydrogen tank of stage II (core stage TS) with matured mass properties allowing to use the tank as a basis to develop advanced space systems;
  • mastering of procedures and equipment employed to handle supercooled hydrogen and to assure safety, as well as usage of supercooled liquid oxygen and cooled kerosene;
  • neutralization of wasted unreacted hydrogen in the process of igniting engines of stage II;
  • development and implementation of new structure materials with improved physical-mechanical properties, new insulation materials and heat protection materials ensuring needed thermal modes under extreme temperature conditions, as well as antistatic coatings with specified conductivity;
  • strengthening of aluminum alloy at cryogenic temperatures and development of a cryogenic test facility;
  • mastering of technology of manufacturing large wafer structures, fuel tanks of a large diameter with electron-beam welding, ensuring cleanness of fuel tanks and non-destructive quality control of adhering thermal insulation and heat protective coatings;
  • definition of acoustic characteristics without firing tests;
  • strength assurance of large structures of LV in environment with sufficient temperature drops and in idle periods and in the process of fueling;
  • solution of problems associated with transportation of large structures of LV on transport aircraft 3M-T;
  • development of versatile complex "Stand-Start" to allow firing tests and launch of LV, experimental facilities to test versatile LVs and their components, and development of experimental setups;
  • development of production facilities at the launch site including test and pre-launch processing and launch automatic control facilities.

One of the important problems associated with electromagnetic compatibility of all radio systems (ground and flight) used in the ascent phase has been successfully solved.

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