Russian

Rocket Systems


The following results were achieved in the course of S.P.Korolev RSC Energia's launch vehicle development efforts:

  • The first launch of A-4 rocket assembled on the basis of components and assemblies of German rocket V-2;
  • Missiles systems with ballistic missiles R-1, R-2, R-9, RT-1, RT-2, RT-2P (RT-1, -2 are solid-propellant rockets) were developed and subsequently put into service;
  • Strategic missile R5 and tactical missile R-11 were developed;
  • The latter was modified for launches from submarines and was indexed as R-11FM;
  • Two-stage intercontinental ballistic missiles R-7 and R-9, three-stage Vostok launch vehicle (consisting of R-7 and upper stage Block E as a third stage) for missions to the Moon, and four-stage Molniya launch vehicle for launching payloads to Venus and Mars (consisting of R-7 and upper stages Block I and Block L) were developed;
  • A considerable amount of experience was accumulated during development under the lunar program of the multi-stage multi-purpose launch vehicle N1;
  • A unique rocket and space system Energia-Buran was developed;
  • Multi-purpose standardized upper stages Block D and Block DM were developed as stage IV for Proton launch vehicle, and Block DM-SL was developed as stage III of integrated launch vehicle Zenit-3SL;
  • Based on the developed elements a number of advanced launch vehicle projects was developed, new rocket and space systems (Avrora, etc.) are under development;
  • Emergency crew rescue system installed on Soyuz launch vehicle was developed and proved its efficiency.

First missile systems - the foundation
of our country's nuclear-missile shield


14 strategic missile systems were developed, out of which 11 entered service.

Missile systems

Entry into service:

1950 - the first ballistic missile R-1
1952 - R-2 with detachable warhead
1955 - R-11 for ground forces
1956 - R-5M with a nuclear charge
1958 - R-11M a mobile missile
1959 - R-11FM for submarines
1960 - the first intercontinental ballistic missile R-7
1960 - R-7A
1965 - R-9A
1968 - RT-2 a solid-propellant rocket
1972 - RT-2P


Space launch vehicles


Space launch vehicles

1957 - 1958 - Launch vehicle - Sputnik - Earth artificial satellites-1, -2, -3
1958 - 1991 - Vostok -Luna robotic spacecraft and manned spacecraft
since 1960  - Molniya - communications, exploration of the Moon, Mars, Venus
1963 - 1976 - Voskhod - manned spacecraft and Zenit SC
since 1966  - Soyuz - manned and logistics spacecraft, exploration of the Moon
1969 - 1972 - Launch vehicle system N1-LЗ
1987 - 1988 - Reusable space transportation system Energia-Buran
с 1999  - Space launcher system Sea Launch


462 rockets, 3400 liquid propulsion engines and more than 400 upper stages have been built. 31 end products have been handed over for serial production to factories in various cities (Samara, Perm, Krasnoyarsk, Voronezh, Kiev, etc.)

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