Missiles Systems

Rocket RT-2P

In 1959 the Government Decree enacted OKB-1 to initiate work on the development of ballistic rockets using solid propellant RT-1 with a warhead flight range of 2 500 km, a launch mass of up to 35 t, and a combat charge mass of 500 kg.
In parallel, the tasks were pursued to implement work on RT-2 assuming the development of a ballistic rocket with a warhead flight range from 10 000 to 12 000 km and a combat charge mass of up to 500 kg. Development and flight tests of experimental rocket RT-1 allowed to gain experience in ground processing and flight testing of solid propellant rockets and to refine certain performance requirements for solid propellant rockets.
The RT-2 preliminary design has been worked out in 1963. It was assumed to use a warhead of 500 kg mass for a firing range from 10 000 to 12 000 km and a warhead of 1400 kg mass for a firing range from 4000 to 5000 km. The rocket had to be launched from a protected silo, its launch readiness had to be L - 3 - 5 minutes.
The possibility was envisioned, through combining stages of rocket RT-2, to develop medium range rockets. All parameters of rocket RT-2 (propellant distribution between stages, a diameter of engines, their burn time, pressure in chambers and at a nozzle exit, etc.) were selected close to optimal. Nevertheless, rocket RT-2 required further improvement. A mix of propellants was made in individual molds, then a charge was inserted into a shell, and a gap between the charge and the shell was filled with special binding material. This brought certain difficulties in manufacturing the solid-propellant rocket and required new design and engineering solutions to eliminate these difficulties when designing the following modifications of rocket RT-2.
One of the rockets, RT-2P, was burning solid propellant based on butyl rubber of high plasticity showing no appreciable aging and cracking during storage. This propellant was directly filled in the engine shell, then polymerized and required surfaces of charge burning were formed thereupon.
Special devices were developed to exclude an unauthorized ignition of engines at the launch pad and solid-propellant engine warranty storage life was increased that improved the rocket quality greatly.
The RT-2 flight test program assumed 32 launches. The launches took place from February to July 1966 from the Kapustin Yar launch site and from November 1966 to October 1968 from the Plesetsk launch site. The first successful launch of rocket RT-2 occurred on February 26, 1966.
On December 18, 1968 rocket RT-2 entered service.
From January 1970 to March 1971 flight tests of modified rocket RT-2P were carried out. The rocket was equipped with an antirocket radio protection system for the warhead, a more powerful warhead, stage III was equipped with a new engine and burning, more efficient propellant.
In 1972, rocket RT-2P entered service.
This rocket was the most felicitous design of OKB-1 that contributed greatly to support parity in the rocket-nuclear "competition" and enhanced safety of our Motherland.
Presently, rockets RT-2P are phased out by reason of their warranty storage life expiration.

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