On April 14 1948 the Government Decree has been enacted
on the development of the first rocket to be made of domestic
materials and derived from missile A-4 (FAU-2). The rocket
was designated as R-1 including its ground support equipment.
Work on a new rocket further designated as R-5 was a continuation
of theoretical design and experimental work on a far-range
ballistic rocket of improved performance. The rocket design
has been completed by October 1951.
The first strategic rocket R-5M was derived from rocket
R-5 in accordance with the Decree of April 19, 1954 to carry
a nuclear warhead to a range of 1200 km. This work was initiated
late in 1953.
Rocket R-11 has been designed under the Government Decree
of February 13, 1953. The rocket was equipped with a liquid-propellant
rocket engine using nitric acid (oxidizer) and kerosene
(fuel) and pressurized propellant delivery lines. The engine
was designed at the Design Office headed by A. M. Isaev.
Based on rocket R-11, geophysical rocket R-11A has been
designed and launched on the Novaya Zemlya (New Land) under
the International Geophysics Year program in 1958.
It was decided to introduce far-range ballistic rockets
in the capacity of the navy armament starting from a diesel
submarine. The Chief Designer was N. N. Isanin. It was necessary
to redesign the selected submarine to accommodate the R-11
family rocket modified at OKB-1 for this purpose. The rocket
was designated as R-11FM and became the first operations
rocket adapted for launching from submarines.
The Government Decree of February 13, 1953 obliged to work
out a preliminary design of a two-stage ballistic rocket
170 t in mass with a separable warhead 3000 kg in mass capable
to be launched to a range of 8000 km. In October 1953, the
design assignment was changed: a fire charge mass was increased
to 3000 kg (a total mass of the rocket warhead - to 5500
kg) with a flight range remained unchanged, i. e. the design
had to be modified radically.
Following from the achievements gained by the beginning
of 1958 in developing more cost saving engines and warheads
of lower mass carrying nuclear charges, the Board of Chief
Designers forwarded a proposal to the USSR Government to
develop new intercontinental rocket R-9 burning oxygen-kerosene
propellant and having a launch mass of 100 t.
In 1959 the Government Decree enacted OKB-1 to initiate
work on the development of ballistic rockets using solid
propellant RT-1 with a warhead flight range of 2 500 km,
a launch mass of up to 35 t, and a combat charge mass of