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Long duration orbital stations Salyut


Long duration orbital station Salyut

Since 1970 the development of orbital stations was one of the main directions of TsKBEV (today it is RSC Energia) work. The results of this work are recognized by the world public as one of the most priority achievements of Russia in the field of manned cosmonautics.
The Salyut station was the first in the world orbital station; work on its development began in late 1969. TsKBEM at that time was the recognized leader in the field of the manned space program implementation in the USSR.
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Long duration orbital station of the second generation Salyut-4

The Salyut station was a new word in space technology, however the technical solutions implemented during its development quickly ceased to satisfy the developers. Some of them imposed certain constraints on efficiency of the station use, significantly limited the time of its operation. One of the disadvantages of this kind was a rigid installation of solar arrays (SA) on its body. For SA pointing to the Sun the corresponding turn of the whole station with its subsequent spin-up was required to keep the maximum SA lighting, in this case “this spin-up” shall be periodically repeated because of instability of the rotation itself that resulted in significant propellant consumption. Such a mode confined the conduct of research and reduced the total operation time of the station in orbit.
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Long duration orbital station of the third generation Salyut-6

As the service life of any LDOS which is rather limited is defined mainly by the fuel reserves and consumables of the life – support system accommodated on it during the injection the question arose with regard to the creation of the constant logistics support system of orbital stations to make their operating life independent of the initial stock of onboard resources. For this purpose the station must have at least, two docking assemblies.
The second docking assembly made it possible not only to refuel the station but make the crew rotation with a constant stay of the crew onboard the station. It was indeed a new word in space technology.
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Long duration orbital station of the third generation Salyut-7

The next station of the third generation was Long Duration Orbital Station LDOS No. 5-2 (Salyut-7). The station in many respects repeated station LDOS No. 5. Nevertheless a number of technical modifications was implemented on it. In particular, the capability of mounting additional solar arrays in flight was envisaged that essentially increased the power supply capacity of the station.
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