S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia

RSC Energia has been conducting activities in rocket-space industry since 1946 when the team of specialists developing long-range ballistic missiles was organized under the leadership of S.P. Korolev, the Chief Designer of rocket-space system and the founder of practical cosmonautics.

On August 9, 1946, by order of the Minister of Armaments D.F. Ustinov, appointed to the position of the Chief Designer of Product No. 1  the long-range ballistic missile was S.P. Korolev. On August 26, 1946, by order of the Minister of Armaments D.F. Ustinov, the organizational structure of Research Institute 88 (NII-88) was defined, which legally approved the establishment of Department 3 within the Special Design Bureau. August 26, 1946, became the day when our company was founded.

The enterprise initiated practically all lines of activity related to national rocket and space technology.

At the present time, PAO RSC Energia is the leading rocket-space enterprise in Russia, the head organization in the field of manned space systems. Its efforts are focused on building automatic space and rocket systems (launch vehicles and orbital transfer vehicles); high-tech, multi-use systems to be used in areas other than space.

Background information

The Corporation was reorganized into a joint-stock company in accordance with the Russian Federation Presidential Decree 237 "On the Privatization Procedure for the Scientific-Production Association Energia after Academician S.P. Korolev" as of February 4, 1994 and based upon the Russian Federation Government Decision 415 "On Creating S.P. Korolev Rocket-Space Corporation Energia" dated April 29, 1994.
RSC Energia is the successor of OKB-1, TsKBEM and NPO Energia after academician S.P. Korolev.

In the mid-1940s and early 1950s of the 20th century the first national ballistic rockets of different types from mobile land complexes of tactical purpose to submarine ballistic missiles and strategic intercontinental thermonuclear delivery vehicles were built at the enterprise. Also the enterprise developed 14 strategic rocket complexes, the 11 of which had gone into service and had been sent to serial production at other manufacturing plants, including the complexes of the pioneer liquid- and solid-propellant rockets (with rockets running on high-boiling and low-boiling liquid propellant components). Up to now, the first space rocket R-7 has been one of the world's most reliable space rockets. Those projects laid the foundation for further development of the national rocket armament.
Since early 1950s the company has been initiating work and was the leader in virtually all the fields of space flight technology. Geophysical rockets (1951-1960, 1964-1975), the first artificial satellite of Earth (1957) and the first space launch vehicle of the R-7 type (Sputnik), which put it into orbit, the first manned mission into space, accomplished by the citizen of our country Y.A.Gagarin (1961), manned spacecraft Vostok (1960-1963), Voskhod (1964-1966), the first automatic probes launched to the Moon and planets of the Solar system Venus and Mars (1959-1969), the first satellites for scientific research (since 1957), surveillance satellites of the Zenit type (1962), Molniya-1 communications satellites (1965), the first soft landing on the Moon (1966) all of these were built and accomplished by our team headed by the Chief Designer S.P. Korolev. Also developed were other projects (manned lunar systems L1, L3, super-heavy launch vehicle N1, multi-purpose orbital complex, Martian manned complex).

    In subsequent years the company played a leading role in the development of:
  • orbital stations Salyut (1971), Salyut 4 (1974-1977), Salyut 6 (1977-1982), Salyut 7 (1982-1991) and multi-modular space station Mir (1986-2001), which became the first International research center in space where Euromir, Mir-Shuttle and Mir-NASA projects were carried out; the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (since 1998);
  • manned spacecraft Soyuz (1966 -1981), Soyuz T (1979-1986), Soyuz TM (1986-2002) , Soyuz TMA (2002-2012), Soyuz TMA-M (2010-2016), Soyuz MS (since 2016);
  • cargo spacecraft Progress (1978-1990), Progress M (1989-2009), Progress 1 (2000-2004), Progress M-M (2008-2015), Progress MS (since 2015);
  • reusable space system Energia-Buran with the worlds largest launch vehicle Energia (1987), which is still technologically unparalleled in the world to this day, and with the reusable Orbiter Buran (1988);
  • orbital space observatory Gamma for astrophysical and geophysical research (1990-1992);
  • new-generation communication satellites Yamal-100 (1999-2011), Yamal-200 (since 2003);
  • Earth Remote Sensing (ERS) satellite BelKA (2006);
  • an ERS space system for a foreign customer (2014-2015), etc.

The enterprise took an active part in international space programs: "Soyuz-Apollo", "Intercosmos". The World's first Sea Launch Complex was developed within the transnational company during the period from 1991 through 1998.

Basic lines of activity

Manned space systems

Main customers: SC ROSCOSMOS, US Space Agency (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), space agencies in other countries.

As far as the Manned Space Systems are concerned, PAO RSC Energia is the leading organization engaged in building and operational use of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment. PAO RSC Energia manufactures and launches transport manned space vehicles of "Soyuz TMA" type; transport cargo space vehicles of "Progress M" type, the ISS Russian Segment modules. The enterprise is responsible for integration and flight control of the ISS Russian Segment; delivery of cosmonauts and cargoes to the ISS; implementation of scientific research and experiments programs. Also the enterprise provided delivery of the Russian systems for European cargo vehicle ATV and its integration into the ISS Russian Segment. In addition, PAO RSC Energia conducts research and development activities in the field of building advanced manned transportation systems, space infrastructure of the 21st century; arranging space expeditions to different areas of circumterrestrial space and the Solar system.

Automatic space systems

Main customers: state customer, foreign customers.

As far as the Automatic Space Systems are concerned, RSC Energia builds automatic space vehicles for multipurpose space systems, including automatic space vehicles of satellite communication and Earth remote sensing systems (ERS).

Rocket systems

Main customers: SC ROSCOSMOS, State Customer, international Sea Launch Company.

As far as the Rocket Systems line of activity is concerned, PAO RSC Energia is engaged in manufacture of Upper Stages DM for launching global satellite navigation system GLONASS and spacecraft under state contracts and commercial programs. In cooperation with the US, Norwegian and Ukrainian companies, PAO RSC Energia created the sea-based rocket-space complex known as the Sea Launch, in which PAO RSC Energia is the leading company responsible for the Rocket Segment. Besides, PAO RSC Energia ensured SC orbital insertion using Upper Stage DM-SLB under the Land Launch Program. Underway is further modernization of Upper Stage DM, including other objectives such as expansion of space research program.
Under development are draft proposals for building rocket-space complexes and new-generation orbital transfer systems, including orbital transfer vehicles.
In order to implement the above programs, PAO RSC Energia uses launch complexes and maintenance areas at Baikonur cosmodrome, Odissey launch platform and assembly-command ship "Sea Launch Commander" of the Sea Launch Complex; Mission Control Center in the city of Korolev and other regional centers and control posts, as well as unique stand facilities for ground testing.

Research and development works are the main activities conducted by PAO RSC Energia in accordance with its core business directions.
ZAO ZEM of RSC Energia is its main partner in execution of the Corporation orders. In creating high technology products of space and non-space purpose, RSC Energia purchases Russian enterprises goods in order to expand its business, as well as implement investment projects aimed to increase business efficiency.
PAO RSC Energia has acquired a broad experience in consolidation and coordination of manpower and technical potential of hundreds of Russian enterprises and international cooperation in implementing large modern rocket-space projects. This experience has been also accumulated during implementation of the Energia-Buran multipurpose transport rocket-space system program; the programs of the Salyut orbital stations, Mir orbital complex, International Space Station, Sea Launch Complex.


The enterprise is decorated with four Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution; received two Messages of Thanks from the Russian Federation Presidents and a Message of Thanks from the Russian Federation Government.


There are one academician and one corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 180 Candidates of Science and 29 Doctors of Science in the Corporation. The leading scientists combine production activity and educational work, among which there are 20 persons with an academic title of professor. For outstanding achievements in creating unique specimens of rocket-space technology and space exploration 25 employees of the enterprise were given the title of the Hero of Socialist Labour, while S.P. Korolev and V.P. Glushko were conferred on this title twice. More than 200 employees of the enterprise became the Lenin Prize, State Prize winners, as well as the Russian Federation Government Prize winners. Many employees are decorated with orders and given medals. 16 employees became Twice Heroes of the Soviet Union; seven employees of the enterprise (cosmonauts) were conferred the title of the Heroes of the Soviet Union on. Also 17 employees of the Corporation (cosmonauts) were conferred the title of the Russian Federation Heroes on.

RSC Energia's branches

Name: Branch "Baikonur PAO RSC Energia after S.P. Korolev"
Location: city of Baikonur-8, Kzyl-Ordy Region, Republic of Kazahstan, 468320

Name: Holiday hotel of sanatorium type "Vostok"
Location: settl. Novomikhailovsky-2, Tuapse Region, Krasnodar territory, Russia, 352841

Name: Holiday hotel "Voskhod"
Location: 15, settlement of Educational enterprise "Sitniky", Sergiev-Posad district, Moscow Region, Russia, 141323

Name: Sanatorium "Krepost"
Location: 9, Mir prospect, health resort-city of Kislovodsk, Stavropol territory, Russia, 357700

The affiliated companies with a 100% share of RSC Energia in the Charter capital

Full firm name: Closed Joint-Stock Company "Experimental Machinebuilding Plant of S.P. Korolev Rocket-Space Corporation Energia"
Shortened firm name: ZAO ZEM RSC Energia
Location: 4A, Lenin Street, Korolev city, Moscow Region, Russia, 141070
TIN: 5018037000
OGRN: 1025002028314
Purpose of participation and description of the affiliated company core business: manufacture of hardware for space exploration, manufacture of prosthetic-orthopedic products, production of consumer goods. Assurance of full-scale cycle of designing and manufacture of transport and cargo space vehicles.

Full firm name: Joint-stock company "Investment Company Razvitiye"
Shortened firm name: JC IC Razvitiye
Location: 4A, Lenin Street, Korolev city, Moscow Region, Russia, 141070
TIN: 5018055017
OGRN: 1025002035277
Purpose of participation and description of the affiliated company core business: investment activity.

Full firm name: Joint-Stock Company "Teplo RSC Energia"
Shortened firm name: AO Teplo RSC Energia
Location: 4A, Lenin Street, Korolev city, Moscow Region, Russia, 141070
OGRN: 1095018005279
Purpose of participation and description of the affiliated company core business: provision of efficient management and operation of the Corporation power generation enterprise, supply of power resources, water.

Full firm name: Limited Liability Company "Ortopedicheskaya Industria Moscow Energia"
Shortened firm name: OOO OIME
Location: 4, Lenin Street, Korolev city, Moscow Region, Russia, 141070
OGRN: 1025002037191
Purpose of participation and description of the affiliated company core business: social component of the Corporation business. Provision of manufacture and delivery to the Russian Federation and other countries enterprises of prosthetic - orthopedic products, hardware for rehabilitation of disabled persons, equipment, medical facilities, completing items and materials for their production, including sale of the products manufactured by the Corporation and its associated companies.

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