Sergei Pavlovich Korolev
Father of practical cosmonautics
Chief designer of rocket and space technology
Founder and first head of Special Design Bureau No.1
Full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Twice Hero of Socialist Labor
Winner of Lenin Prize
Born in Zhitomir. 1922-1924 - a pupil at construction vocational school No.1 (Odessa). 1924-1926 - a student at Kiev Polytechnic Institute. 1926-1930 - a student at Moscow Higher Technical School (currently known as Bauman Moscow State Technical University), graduated from it and from Moscow School of Glider Pilots (1930). 1927-1931 - engineer, senior engineer, head of group, head of designer team at aircraft plants No. 22, 39 (Moscow). 1931-1932 - senior engineer, head of group at TsAGI. 1932-1933 - head of Moscow-based Group for the Study of Reactive Motion (GIRD). 1933-1938 - deputy head of Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII), senior engineer, head of department at RNII - NII-3 (currently known as Keldysh Research Center). 1938-1940 - became a victim of political repression and was banished to Kolyma. 1940-1941 - worked at Central Design Bureau 29 of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) of the USSR (Moscow), 1941-1942 - worked at Omsk aircraft plant. 1943-1945 - deputy chief designer, head of department; chief designer, head of department at Special Design Bureau of NKVD at aircraft factory No.16 (Kazan). Released from prison with criminal record expunged (1944). 1945-1946 - a member of special engineering committee for study of the captured German rocket technology, first deputy head, chief engineer of Institute Nordhausen (Germany). 1946-1951 - Chief Designer of long-range ballistic missiles and head of department in Special Design Bureau NII-88 (Kaliningrad, Moscow region). 1951-1956 - deputy director of NII-88 and Chief Designer of Special Design Bureau No.1 (within NII-88). 1956-1966 - head of the enterprise and Chief Designer of the Special Design Bureau No.1 of the USSR Ministry of Defense Industry, established on the basis of the Special Design Bureau No.1 of NII-88 and Plant 88.
Corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1953), full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1958), a member of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1960-1966). Founder and head of Special Design Bureau No.1, the team of which supported laying the foundations of the Soviet Union's nuclear missile shield (development and commissioning of our country's first long-range ballistic missiles using high-boiling and low-boiling liquid propellants and solid propellants), mankind's breakthrough into space and beginning of its exploration (first high-altitude geophysical rockets, first artificial Earth satellite Sputnik 1, first biological satellite Sputnik 2, first manned space mission of Y.A.Gagarin, first scientific satellites D and MS, first space system Elektron, unmanned spacecraft to the Moon, Mars and Venus, our country's first communications satellites Molniya-1 and photographic observation satellites Zenit). Under his direction work was conducted on the programs of manned spacecraft Vostok and Voskhod, and the work on manned lunar programs L1, N1-L1, Soyuz was started, exploratory design work was conducted on manned vehicles for missions to the planets of the Solar system, a family of common launch vehicles N1, N11, N111, and other projects. Being the initiator and the Chairman of the Council of Chief Designers, in 1946-1966 he provided technical management and coordination of work conducted by our country's companies and organizations under rocket and space projects developed under the leadership of Special Design Bureau №1 headed by him. He was the founder of a school of engineering though in the fields of design, manufacturing, testing and application of complex rocket and space systems. (among his pupils, successors and followers are hundreds of outstanding, world-renowned scientists, engineers and specialists). He authored and co-authored more than 250 scientific papers. Twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1956, 1961). Winner of the Lenin Prize (1957). He was awarded the orders of the Badge of Honor (1945), of Lenin (1956, 1961), medals For Valiant Labor during Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 (1945), In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow (1948), K.E. Tsiolkovsky Gold Medal №1 of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1958). Monuments and portrait sculptures of S.P. Korolev are erected in Moscow, Korolev, Baikonur, Zhitomir, Kiev, Taganrog, Kaluga, Cheboksary, Samara; at the Kapustin Yar launch site; in the village of Koktebel, etc. Monuments and portrait sculptures of S.P. Korolev are erected in Moscow, Korolev, Baikonur, Zhitomir, Kiev, Taganrog, Kaluga, Cheboksary, Samara; at the Kapustin Yar launch site; in the urban-type settlement of Koktebel, etc. At the Baikonur launch site, in Zhitomir, Moscow, Peresvet there are memorial house museums, the museum of RSC Energia includes a memorial room recreating S.P.Korolev's office at work. His name was given to the town of science Korolev (earlier known as Kaliningrad) of Moscow region, Rocket and Space Corporation Energia, Samara State Aerospace University, Military Institute of the National Aviation University (Zhitomir, Ukraine), JSC Meridian (Kiev, Ukraine), Academy of Sciences and Arts of the Union of Russia and Belarus, Math Gymnasium (Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria), Mechanical College (Dupnitsa, Bulgaria), research vessels "Academician Korolev", "Academician Sergei Korolev", thalassoid (crater) on the far side of the Moon, small planet No.1855 Korolev, star 5 No.000001 in the constellation of Capricorn "Designer Korolev", Korolev peak in Pamir mountains, Sergei Korolev peak in Tien Shan mountains, S.P. Korolev peak in Altai, streets and avenues in many towns, school museums.
The USSR Academy of Sciences established in 1966 S.P. Korolev desk gold medal, to honor with it the scientists and engineers who have done outstanding work in the field of rocket and space technology.
Administration of the town of Korolev established S.P. Korolev Prize which is annually awarded based on competition results to the best young scientists and specialists working at the enterprises of the town belonging to the industry. S.P. Korolev stipends were established for the students of the institutions of higher education.