characteristics of rocket R-11
Maximum firing range, km
Launch mass, kg
Warhead mass, kg
(nitric acid AK-20I, kerosene T-1,
mix of TG-02 and gas), kg
Engine ground thrust, kgf
Comparing to R-1, the new rocket launch mass was 2.5 times
as less with the same flight range.
The first cycle of flight tests was undertaken from April
18 to June 2, 1953. 10 launches were planned. The first
launch of rocket R-11 took place on May 21, 1953.
Relying on the flight test results, a number modifications
have been made to the rocket design - intake devices were
installed in tanks to ensure their complete depletion. Considerable
modifications were made to the engine design to provide
its overall pressurization.
The second cycle of flight tests was run from April 20 to
May 13, 1954. Nine of ten rockets R-11 reached a range of
270 km with a possible ranging error of 1.19 km and cross
range error of 0.66 km.
From December 1954 to January 1955, five successful adjustment
tests have been performed. Upon completion of 10 qualification
tests in January - February 1955, on June 13, 1955 rocket
R-11 entered service.
Small dimensions and high performance, capability of long
storage in a fueled state gave the ability to use the rocket
being moved on different transportation means (wheeled and
caterpillar vehicles, dedicated railway cars, ships and
submarines equipped with application specific silos) and
carrying a common or nuclear charge.
Under the Government Decree of August 26, 1954 a new rocket
R-11M has been designed for the ground forces. Once five
qualification tests have been run in 1958, rocket R-11M,
by the Government Decree of April 1, 1958, entered service
in the ground forces in the capacity of an operational-tactical
rocket carrying a nuclear warhead.
For routine employment of rocket R-11M a movable ground
support complex have been developed at OKB-1 including a
road-transported launch pad deployed directly on ground.
Further, under performance specifications of OKB-1, a self-propelled
launch system have been derived from a heavy tank for rocket
R-11M at the Kirov's plant at Leningrad. Such a launch system
could deliver a fueled rocket to a specified area, launch
it and return to a base to take a new rocket and launch
it in other area.
||Transportation and installation
of rocket R-11M to a launch pad
Based on rocket R-11, geophysical
rocket R-11A has been designed and launched on the Novaya
Zemlya (New Land) under the International Geophysics Year
program in 1958.