OAO Rocket and Space Corporation Energia after S.P. Korolev
Rocket and Space Public Corporation Energia after S.P. Korolev is the strategic enterprise of Russia and the leading company engaged in manned space systems. A great deal of attention is focused on the development of new space technologies, including dedicated unmanned space systems for various applications, rocket systems for spacecraft orbital injection. Its presence is noticeable on the international market of rocket and space services. It is the leader in introducing space high technologies for manufacture of products not related to space industry.
38% of the Corporation equity is owned by the state.
- Primary Design Bureau;
- Baikonur branch;
- ZAO Experimental Machinebuilding Plant, RSC Energia;
- ZAO Volzhskoye DB;
- ZAO PO Kosmos, RSC Energia;
- Developed social infrastructure.
In 1994 the enterprise was given its current name. Earlier it had been known as Special Design Bureau-1 (OKB-1); Central Design Bureau of Experimental Machinebuilding (TsKBEM), Scientific-Production Association (NPO) Energia.
In the mid - 40s - early 50s of the 20th century the enterprice created the pioneer national different ballistic missiles - from mobile land-use tactical complexes to submarine ballistic missiles and strategic intercontinental thermonuclear weapon vehicles. Also the enterprise developed 14 strategic missile complexes, the 11 of which had gone into service and had been put into full-scale production to other plants, including the complexes of the pioneer liquid- and solid-propellant rockets (with high-temperature and low-temperature liquid-propellant components). The first space rocket Ð-7 has been until the present time one of the world's most reliable rockets. Those project provided background for further development of the national rocket armament.
Since early 50s the enterprise has initiated and taken charge of virtually all lines of cosmonautics activities.
The first-ever artificial Earth satellite (1957) and the first integrated launch vehicle Ð-7 (Sputnik), which provided its orbit delivery; the first man-in-space flight performed by our citizen Yu.A. Gagarin (1961); the pioneer spacecraft launched to the Moon and the Solar system planets, Venus and Mars (1959-1969); the first research satellites (since 1957); the pioneer soft Lunar landing (1966) - all those things had been created and implemented due to the brilliant ideas and initiatives demonstrated by S.P. Korolev, the talented engineer and manager, chief designer of the national rocket-space systems, the founder of practical cosmonautics, the academician.
The enterprise led the development and operation of the following:
In addition, other projects aimed to create advanced rocket-space technology systems (manned Lunar complexes L1, L3; superheavy launch vehicle H1; multipurpose orbital complex; Martian manned complex, etc.). The Corporation was heavily involved in implementing International Space Programs: "Soyuz - Apollo" "Interkosmos".
- national manned space vehicles Vostok (1960-1963), one of which was used to perform the first man-in-space flight by Yu.A. Gagarin; Voskhod (1964-1968); Soyuz (1966-1981);
- Soyuz T (1979-1986); Soyuz TM (1986-2002);
- national cargo space vehicles Progress (1978-1989); Progress M (since 1989);
- orbital stations Salyut (1971); Salyut-4 (1974-1977); Salyut-6 (1977-1982); Salyut-7 (1982-1991) and Mir multimodule station (1986-2001);
- space orbital observatory Gamma for astrophysical and geophysical research (1990-1992);
- spacecraft Zenit for detailed imagery of earth surface (1962);
- pioneer national communication satellites Molnia-1 (1965);
- reusable space system Buran with the world's largest launch vehicle Energia (1987) (which has not had any international technical analogs up to now) and reusable Orbiter Buran (1988).
Manned Space Systems
- International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) developed (since 1993) and being operated (since1998). The activities has also to do with coordination of the RS - related works between Russian and International partners, participation in the development and utilization of Functional Cargo Block (FGB) Zarya; development and operation of Service Module Zvezda (2000), docking module compartment Pirs (2001);
- Progress M, Progress M1, Soyuz TM space vehicles manufacture and mission assurance (since 2000) under the ISS Program. Manned space vehicle Soyuz TMA developed, manufactured and being operated under the ISS Program (since 2002);
- Ensuring implementation of the space experiments and research programs using the ISS RS means, Soyuz- and Progress - type space vehicles;
- ISS RS build-up activities, including multipurpose laboratory and small-size research and power module projects capitalizing on robotics achievements;
- Putting forward proposals to develop advanced, new-generation space vehicle based upon the state-of-the art achievements in cybernetics, nanotechnologies, microelectronics etc.;
- " Development and delivery of the Russian systems for European cargo vehicle ATV (refueling system, docking system, docking unit and the Russian systems control system); ensuring space vehicle integration into the ISS RS.
Unmanned Space Systems
- Development, manufacture and operation (since 1999)
of the communication satellites based upon universal space
bus "Viktoria" of its own;
- Development of dedicated satellites based upon
the above space bus to solve the problems that state and
commercial customers are faced with, including Earth remote
- Development and manufacture of DM (since 1969), ÄÌ-SL (since 1998) type Upper Stages used as space stages of Proton and Zenit-3SL launch vehicles, including development and manufacture of modern modifications of those blocks such as Upper Stage DM-SLB for the Land Launch Project;
- Development and operation (since 1999) together with the US, Ukrainian, Norwegian companies of the sea-based Sea Launch Rocket and Space Complex to launch commercial satellites into high, near-earth orbits via Zenit-3SL launch vehicles; development, outfitting of the Rocket Segment as a whole and its integration into the above Complex;
- Participation in the development of the Land Launch ground-based rocket and space complex as an alternative to the Sea Launch Complex being developed capitalizing on Baikonur Cosmodrome potential;
- Putting forward the proposals to modernize and enhance power characteristics of Russian launch vehicles in the interests of solving practically important problems to place into near-earth orbits of spacecraft serving different purposes.
- Further near-earth space development based upon buildup of the ISS RS and its applications; development of a new-generation transport manned space system;
- Development of manned space systems to implement interplanetary expeditions;
- Development and manufacture of space telecommunication and power systems based upon large space antennas and reflectors.
Provision of Services
During 1991-2005 the enterprise had provided background for, implemented and has been implementing Russian programs for creation and utilization of the first International Research Space Center Mir known for its "Euromir", "Mir-Shuttle", "Mir-NASA" projects; works were developed on the International Space Station, reusable transport space system. In addition, the world's first Sea Launch Complex within the framework of the transnational company was developed and has been operating. The activities are being carried out on European Cargo Vehicle ATV; Land Launch Project. Modern communication satellites, remote sensing satellites "Belka" were created on the basis of universal space bus. Efforts are underway to develop dedicated space complexes, etc.
- ensuring cosmonaut and astronaut technical training and flight under the contracts entered into with international space agencies and organizations;
- accommodation of international agency and organization payloads onboard the ISS RS, Soyuz and Progress space vehicles, use of Russian scientific equipment for their benefit;
- designing, manufacture, testing and operating of the rocket and space technology for Russian state departments and commercial customers from Russia and other countries as agreed upon with Roscosmos, including development of communication and surveillance satellites;
- engineering services, consultations concerning the development, manufacture and utilization of high technology and complex engineering space systems for orbital and ground infrastructure at the requests made by other organizations and as agreed upon with Roscosmos.
Throughout its operation, the enterprise was headed by the academicians S.P. Korolev (1946-1966); V.P. Mishin (1966-1974); V.P. Glushko (1974-1989); Yu.P. Semenov (1989-2005). The Corporation is currently led by V.A. Lopota, the RAS corresponding member.
The enterprise has been awarded 4 Orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution; Russian Federation President's Message of Thanks.
Three members and two corresponding members of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 197 candidates of Science and 29 Doctors of Sciences are currently working at the Corporation. The leading scientists combine production activity with teaching. They include 20 scientists with academic rank of professor.
For the outstanding achievements in making unique prototypes of rocket-space technology and space development 25 employees of the enterprise were awarded the title of the Hero of Socialists Labour; S.P. Korolev and V.P. Glushko had been twice awarded that title. More than 200 employees of the enterprise became Lenin, State Prize winners, the Russian Federation Government Prize winners. A lot of employees were decorated with orders and medals.
16 employees were awarded the title of Twice Heroes of the Soviet Union; 7 employees (cosmonauts) were awarded the title of Heroes of the Soviet Union.
14 employees of the Corporation (cosmonauts) were awarded the title of the Heroes of the Russian Federation.
Address: Russia 141070, Moscow Region, Korolev, 4a Lenin Street
Tel.: (495) 513-72-48
Fax: (495) 513-86-20