Русский

Man in space


Experiment Matryoshka-R


In implementation of long-duration manned space flights it is required to identify space radiation impact on human beings. Experimental dosimetric investigations using phantoms simulating human body provide the most accurate information for assessment of human organizm exposure to radiation under these conditions. Tissue-equivalent spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms used in this experiment are made of specially developed substances which are the most identical to a standardized model of human tissues by their composition. During conduct of the experiment, background measurements of radiological conditions throughout a flight course will be made both inside and outside the station.

Objective:

  • Investigation into dynamics of in-orbit radiological situation both in Service Module and the ISS RS docking module, as well as accumulated radiation doses in anthropomorphic and spherical phantoms.
  • Improvement of the methods of space dosimetry and evaluating radiation hazard impact on cosmonaut's body during dynamics of radiological situation throughout flight trajectory.

Tasks:

  • Measurement of spatial and solid distributions of radiation characteristics of space ionizing radiation in pressurized compartments of Service Module and Docking Module of the ISS RS by means of scientific equipment PDA (Assembly of Passive Detectors) and Phantom (Spherical Tissue-Equivalent Phantom).
  • Development of calculation methods to evaluate radiation doses for various organs of cosmonauts' bodies during long in-orbit flights to the ISS RS.
  • Verification of radiological situation models in near-earth space and the methods for calculating radiation transmission through protective substance and tissues by comparing the assessed parameters of radiological conditions determined via calculations in the station compartments and phantom with the measurement results.
  • Research into space radiation distribution throughout the station flight trajectory.
  • Study of time-dependent space radiation variations (cycles of solar activity, proton emission resulting from sun burst) and in-orbit parameters.
  • Research into impact of protection on variation in space radiation dose (attenuation of dose, factor of protection substance accumulation and/or activation).

Science Hardware Used:


  • PDA kit consisting of 6 assemblies for accommodation in SM compartments;
  • Phantom kit outfitted with a set of changeable assemblies and cylindrical cases containing passive detectors;
  • Stowage with tools;

  • Matryoshka equipment (monoblock).

Flight Equipment Used:

  • Videocamera PD-70P;
  • Digital camera Nikon D1 for photographic recording and filming of PDA and Phantom scientific equipment installation sites;
  • Laptop;
  • Payload server unit functioning as control computer;
  • Winchesters;
  • Power switching unit;
  • Cable kit.

Experiment Results:

  • PDA kit assemblies with the exposed detectors.
  • Stowage of the Phantom scientific equipment containing cylindrical cases and the cover with the exposed detectors within it.
  • Photographic data to be downlinked via TV exchange module.
  • Data necessary to predict radiation hazards risk for future space projects and to develop the ISS radiation monitoring aids.